ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第1篇

JOL Co was the market leader with a share of 30% three years ago. The managing director of JOL Co stated at a

recent meeting of the board of directors that: ‘our loss of market share during the last three years might lead to the

end of JOL Co as an organisation and therefore we must address this issue immediately’.


(b) Discuss the statement of the managing director of JOL Co and discuss six performance indicators, other than

decreasing market share, which might indicate that JOL Co might fail as a corporate entity. (10 marks)

(b) It would appear that JOL’s market share has declined from 30% to (80 – 26)/3 = 18% during the last three years. A 12%
fall in market share is probably very significant with a knock-on effect on profits and resultant cash flows. Obviously such a
declining trend needs to be arrested immediately and this will require a detailed investigation to be undertaken by the directors
of JOL. Consequently loss of market share can be seen to be an indicator of potential corporate failure. Other indicators of
corporate failure are as follows:
Six performance indicators that an organisation might fail are as follows:
Poor cash flow
Poor cash flow might render an organisation unable to pay its debts as and when they fall due for payment. This might mean,
for example, that providers of finance might be able to invoke the terms of a loan covenant and commence legal action against
an organisation which might eventually lead to its winding-up.
Lack of new production/service introduction
Innovation can often be seen to be the difference between ‘life and death’ as new products and services provide continuity
of income streams in an ever-changing business environment. A lack of new product/service introduction may arise from a
shortage of funds available for re-investment. This can lead to organisations attempting to compete with their competitors with
an out of date range of products and services, the consequences of which will invariably turn out to be disastrous.
General economic conditions
Falling demand and increasing interest rates can precipitate the demise of organisations. Highly geared organisations will
suffer as demand falls and the weight of the interest burden increases. Organisations can find themselves in a vicious circle
as increasing amounts of interest payable are paid from diminishing gross margins leading to falling profits/increasing losses
and negative cash flows. This leads to the need for further loan finance and even higher interest burden, further diminution
in margins and so on.
Lack of financial controls
The absence of sound financial controls has proven costly to many organisations. In extreme circumstances it can lead to
outright fraud (e.g. Enron and WorldCom).
Internal rivalry
The extent of internal rivalry that exists within an organisation can prove to be of critical significance to an organisation as
managerial effort is effectively channeled into increasing the amount of internal conflict that exists to the detriment of the
organisation as a whole. Unfortunately the adverse consequences of internal rivalry remain latent until it is too late to redress
Loss of key personnel
In certain types of organisation the loss of key personnel can ‘spell the beginning of the end’ for an organisation. This is
particularly the case when individuals possess knowledge which can be exploited by direct competitors, e.g. sales contacts,
product specifications, product recipes, etc.

(b) Using sensitivity analysis, estimate by what percentage each of the under-mentioned items, taken separately,

would need to change before the recommendation in (a) above is varied:

(i) Initial outlay;

(ii) Annual contribution. (4 marks)


4 The transition to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) involves major change for companies as IFRSs

introduce significant changes in accounting practices that were often not required by national generally accepted

accounting practice. It is important that the interpretation and application of IFRSs is consistent from country to

country. IFRSs are partly based on rules, and partly on principles and management’s judgement. Judgement is more

likely to be better used when it is based on experience of IFRSs within a sound financial reporting infrastructure. It is

hoped that national differences in accounting will be eliminated and financial statements will be consistent and

comparable worldwide.


(a) Discuss how the changes in accounting practices on transition to IFRSs and choice in the application of

individual IFRSs could lead to inconsistency between the financial statements of companies. (17 marks)

(a) The transition to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) involves major change for companies as IFRS introduces
significant changes in accounting practices that often were not required by national GAAPs. For example financial instruments
and share-based payment plans in many instances have appeared on the statements of financial position of companies for
the first time. As a result IFRS financial statements are often significantly more complex than financial statements based on
national GAAP. This complexity is caused by the more extensive recognition and measurement rules in IFRS and a greater
number of disclosure requirements. Because of this complexity, it can be difficult for users of financial statements which have
been produced using IFRS to understand and interpret them, and thus can lead to inconsistency of interpretation of those
financial statements.
The form. and presentation of financial statements is dealt with by IAS1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’. This standard
sets out alternative forms or presentations of financial statements. Additionally local legislation often requires supplementary
information to be disclosed in financial statements, and best practice as to the form. or presentation of financial statements
has yet to emerge internationally. As a result companies moving to IFRS have tended to adopt IFRS in a way which minimises
the change in the form. of financial reporting that was applied under national GAAP. For example UK companies have tended
to present a statement of recognised income and expense, and a separate statement of changes in equity whilst French
companies tend to present a single statement of changes in equity.
It is possible to interpret standards in different ways and in some standards there is insufficient guidance. For example there
are different acceptable methods of classifying financial assets under IAS39 ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and
Measurement’ in the statement of financial position as at fair value through profit or loss (subject to certain conditions) or
available for sale.
IFRSs are not based on a consistent set of principles, and there are conceptual inconsistencies within and between standards.
Certain standards allow alternative accounting treatments, and this is a further source of inconsistency amongst financial
statements. IAS31 ‘Interests in Joint Ventures’ allows interests in jointly controlled entities to be accounted for using the equity
method or proportionate consolidation. Companies may tend to use the method which was used under national GAAP.
Another example of choice in accounting methods under IFRS is IAS16 ‘Property, Plant and equipment’ where the cost or
revaluation model can be used for a class of property, plant and equipment. Also there is very little industry related accounting
guidance in IFRS. As a result judgement plays an important role in the selection of accounting policies. In certain specific
areas this can lead to a degree of inconsistency and lack of comparability.
IFRS1, ‘First time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards’, allows companies to use a number of exemptions
from the requirements of IFRS. These exemptions can affect financial statements for several years. For example, companies
can elect to recognise all cumulative actuarial gains and losses relating to post-employment benefits at the date of transition
to IFRS but use the ‘corridor’ approach thereafter. Thus the effect of being able to use a ‘one off write off’ of any actuarial
losses could benefit future financial statements significantly, and affect comparability. Additionally after utilising the above
exemption, companies can elect to recognise subsequent gains and losses outside profit or loss in ‘other comprehensive
income’ in the period in which they occur and not use the ‘corridor’ approach thus affecting comparability further.
Additionally IAS18 ‘Revenue’ allows variations in the way revenue is recognised. There is no specific guidance in IFRS on
revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables. Transactions have to be analysed in accordance with their economic
substance but there is often no more guidance than this in IFRS. The identification of the functional currency under IAS21,
‘The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates’, can be subjective. For example the functional currency can be determined
by the currency in which the commodities that a company produces are commonly traded, or the currency which influences
its operating costs, and both can be different.
Another source of inconsistency is the adoption of new standards and interpretations earlier than the due date of application
of the standard. With the IASB currently preparing to issue standards with an adoption date of 1 January 2009, early adoption
or lack of it could affect comparability although IAS8 ‘Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors’
requires a company to disclose the possible impact of a new standard on its initial application. Many companies make very
little reference to the future impact of new standards.

(c) Explain how Perfect Shopper might re-structure its downstream supply chain to address the problems

identified in the scenario. (10 marks)

(c) A number of opportunities appear to exist in the downstream supply chain.
As already mentioned above, Perfect Shopper can revisit its contract distribution arrangements. At present, distribution to
neighbourhood shops is in the hands of locally appointed contract distributors. As already suggested, it may be possible to
contract one integrated logistics company to carry out both inbound and outbound logistics, so gaining economies of scale
and opportunities for branding.
One of the problems identified in the independent report was the inflexibility of the ordering and delivering system. The
ordering system appears to be built around a fixed standard delivery made every two weeks, agreed in advance for a three
month period. Variations can be made to this standard order, but only increases – not decreases. Presumably, this
arrangement is required to allow Perfect Shopper to forecast demand over a three month period and to place bulk orders to
reflect these commitments. However, this may cause at least two problems. The first is that participating shops place a
relatively low standard order and rely on variations to fulfil demand. This causes problems for Perfect Shopper. Secondly, any
unpredictable fall in demand during the three month period leads to the shop having storage problems and unsold stock. This
potentially creates problems for the shop owner, who may also begin to question the value of the franchise. Hence Perfect
Shopper might wish to consider a much more flexible system where orders can be made to match demand and deliveries
can be made as required. This would also remove the requirement for a three monthly meeting between the franchisee andthe sales representative from Perfect Shopper. Investments in IT systems will be required to support this, with participating
shops placing orders over the Internet to reflect their requirements. This move towards a more flexible purchasing arrangement
may also make the outsourcing of warehousing and distribution even more appealing.
Perfect Shopper may also wish to investigate whether they can also provide value added services to customers, which not
only simplify the ordering system but also allow the shop managers to better understand their customers and fulfil their
requirements. The supply chain may legitimately include the customer’s customers, particularly for franchisers. This is already
acknowledged because Perfect Shopper produces tailored marketing material aimed at the end-consumer. Point of Sales (PoS)
devices feeding information back to Perfect Shopper would allow sales information to be analysed and fed back to the
shopkeeper as well as allowing automatic replenishment based on purchasing trends. However, this may be culturally difficult
for independent neighbourhood shopkeepers to accept. Furthermore, it would potentially include information outside the
products offered by Perfect Shopper and the implications of this would have to be considered. However, a whole shop sales
analysis might be a useful service to offer existing and potential franchisees.
Customers are increasingly willing to order products over the Internet. It seems unlikely that individual shopkeepers would be
able to establish and maintain their own Internet-based service. It would be useful for Perfect Shopper to explore the potential
of establishing a central website with customers placing orders from local shops. Again there are issues about scope, because
Perfect Shopper does not offer a whole-shop service. However, Michael de Kare-Silver has identified groceries as a product
area that has good potential for Internet purchase. In his electronic shopping potential test any product scoring over 20 hasgood potential. Groceries scored 27.

(ii) Audit work on after-date bank transactions identified a transfer of cash from Batik Co. The audit senior has

documented that the finance director explained that Batik commenced trading on 7 October 2005, after

being set up as a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary of Jinack. No other evidence has been obtained.

(4 marks)


Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2005 and, where appropriate, the year ending

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

(ii) Wholly-owned foreign subsidiary
■ The cash transfer is a non-adjusting post balance sheet event. It indicates that Batik was trading after the balance
sheet date. However, that does not preclude Batik having commenced trading before the year end.
■ The finance director’s oral representation is wholly insufficient evidence with regard to the existence (or otherwise)
of Batik at 30 September 2005. If it existed at the balance sheet date its financial statements should have been
consolidated (unless immaterial).
■ The lack of evidence that might reasonably be expected to be available (e.g. legal papers, registration payments,
etc) suggests a limitation on the scope of the audit.
■ If such evidence has been sought but not obtained then the limitation is imposed by the entity (rather than by
■ Whilst the transaction itself may not be material, the information concerning the existence of Batik may be material
to users and should therefore be disclosed (as a non-adjusting event). The absence of such disclosure, if the
auditor considered necessary, would result in a qualified ‘except for’, opinion.
Tutorial note: Any matter that is considered sufficiently material to be worthy of disclosure as a non-adjusting
event must result in such a qualified opinion if the disclosure is not made.
■ If Batik existed at the balance sheet date and had material assets and liabilities then its non-consolidation would
have a pervasive effect. This would warrant an adverse opinion.
■ Also, the nature of the limitation (being imposed by the entity) could have a pervasive effect if the auditor is
suspicious that other audit evidence has been withheld. In this case the auditor should disclaim an opinion.

(b) Comment (with relevant calculations) on the performance of the business of Quicklink Ltd and Celer

Transport during the year ended 31 May 2005 and, insofar as the information permits, its projected

performance for the year ending 31 May 2006. Your answer should specifically consider:

(i) Revenue generation per vehicle

(ii) Vehicle utilisation and delivery mix

(iii) Service quality. (14 marks)


difference will reduce in the year ending 31 May 2006 due to the projected growth in sales volumes of the Celer Transport
business. The average mail/parcels delivery of mail/parcels per vehicle of the Quicklink Ltd part of the business is budgeted
at 12,764 which is still 30·91% higher than that of the Celer Transport business.
As far as specialist activities are concerned, Quicklink Ltd is budgeted to generate average revenues per vehicle amounting to
£374,850 whilst Celer Transport is budgeted to earn an average of £122,727 from each of the vehicles engaged in delivery
of processed food. It is noticeable that all contracts with major food producers were renewed on 1 June 2005 and it would
appear that there were no increases in the annual value of the contracts with major food producers. This might have been
the result of a strategic decision by the management of the combined entity in order to secure the future of this part of the
business which had been built up previously by the management of Celer Transport.
Each vehicle owned by Quicklink Ltd and Celer Transport is in use for 340 days during each year, which based on a
365 day year would give an in use % of 93%. This appears acceptable given the need for routine maintenance and repairs
due to wear and tear.
During the year ended 31 May 2005 the number of on-time deliveries of mail and parcel and industrial machinery deliveries
were 99·5% and 100% respectively. This compares with ratios of 82% and 97% in respect of mail and parcel and processed
food deliveries made by Celer Transport. In this critical area it is worth noting that Quicklink Ltd achieved their higher on-time
delivery target of 99% in respect of each activity whereas Celer Transport were unable to do so. Moreover, it is worth noting
that Celer Transport missed their target time for delivery of food products on 975 occasions throughout the year 31 May 2005
and this might well cause a high level of customer dissatisfaction and even result in lost business.
It is interesting to note that whilst the businesses operate in the same industry they have a rather different delivery mix in
terms of same day/next day demands by clients. Same day deliveries only comprise 20% of the business of Quicklink Ltd
whereas they comprise 75% of the business of Celer Transport. This may explain why the delivery performance of Celer
Transport with regard to mail and parcel deliveries was not as good as that of Quicklink Ltd.
The fact that 120 items of mail and 25 parcels were lost by the Celer Transport business is most disturbing and could prove
damaging as the safe delivery of such items is the very substance of the business and would almost certainly have resulted
in a loss of customer goodwill. This is an issue which must be addressed as a matter of urgency.
The introduction of the call management system by Quicklink Ltd on 1 June 2004 is now proving its worth with 99% of calls
answered within the target time of 20 seconds. This compares favourably with the Celer Transport business in which only
90% of a much smaller volume of calls were answered within a longer target time of 30 seconds. Future performance in this
area will improve if the call management system is applied to the Celer Transport business. In particular, it is likely that the
number of abandoned calls will be reduced and enhance the ‘image’ of the Celer Transport business.

2 Your audit client, Prescott Co, is a national hotel group with substantial cash resources. Its accounting functions are

well managed and the group accounting policies are rigorously applied. The company’s financial year end is

31 December.

Prescott has been seeking to acquire a construction company for some time in order to bring in-house the building

and refurbishment of hotels and related leisure facilities (e.g. swimming pools, squash courts and restaurants).

Prescott’s management has recently identified Robson Construction Co as a potential target and has urgently requested

that you undertake a limited due diligence review lasting two days next week.

Further to their preliminary talks with Robson’s management, Prescott has provided you with the following brief on

Robson Construction Co:

The chief executive, managing director and finance director are all family members and major shareholders. The

company name has an established reputation for quality constructions.

Due to a recession in the building trade the company has been operating at its overdraft limit for the last 18

months and has been close to breaching debt covenants on several occasions.

Robson’s accounting policies are generally less prudent than those of Prescott (e.g. assets are depreciated over

longer estimated useful lives).

Contract revenue is recognised on the percentage of completion method, measured by reference to costs incurred

to date. Provisions are made for loss-making contracts.

The company’s management team includes a qualified and experienced quantity surveyor. His main

responsibilities include:

(1) supervising quarterly physical counts at major construction sites;

(2) comparing costs to date against quarterly rolling budgets; and

(3) determining profits and losses by contract at each financial year end.

Although much of the labour is provided under subcontracts all construction work is supervised by full-time site


In August 2005, Robson received a claim that a site on which it built a housing development in 2002 was not

properly drained and is now subsiding. Residents are demanding rectification and claiming damages. Robson

has referred the matter to its lawyers and denied all liability, as the site preparation was subcontracted to Sarwar

Services Co. No provisions have been made in respect of the claims, nor has any disclosure been made.

The auditor’s report on Robson’s financial statements for the year to 30 June 2005 was signed, without

modification, in March 2006.


(a) Identify and explain the specific matters to be clarified in the terms of engagement for this due diligence

review of Robson Construction Co. (6 marks)

(a) Terms of engagement – matters to be clarified
Tutorial note: This one-off assignment requires a separate letter of engagement. Note that, at this level, a standard list of
contents will earn few, if any, marks. Any ‘ideas list’ must be tailored to generate answer points specific to the due diligence
review of this target company.
■ Objective of the review: for example, to find and report facts relevant to Prescott’s decision whether to acquire Robson.
The terms should confirm whether Prescott’s interest is in acquiring the company (i.e. the share capital) or its trading
assets (say), as this will affect the nature and scope of the review.
Tutorial note: This is implied as Prescott ‘has been seeking to acquire ... to bring building … in-house’.
■ Prescott’s management will be solely responsible for any decision made (e.g. any offer price made to purchase Robson).
■ The nature and scope of the review and any standards/guidelines in accordance with which it will be conducted. That
investigation will consist of enquiry (e.g. of the directors and the quantity surveyor) and analytical procedures (e.g. on
budgeted information and prior period financial statements).
Tutorial note: This is not going to be a review of financial statements. The prior year financial statements have only
recently been audited and financial statements for the year end 30 June 2006 will not be available in time for the
■ The level of assurance will be ‘negative’. That is, that the material subject to review is free of material misstatement. It
should be stated that an audit is not being performed and that an audit opinion will not be expressed.
■ The timeframe. for conducting the investigation (two days next week) and the deadline for reporting the findings.
■ The records, documentation and other information to which access will be unrestricted. This will be the subject of
agreement between Prescott and Robson.
■ A responsibility/liability disclaimer that the engagement cannot be relied upon to disclose errors, illegal acts or other
irregularities (e.g. fraudulent financial reporting or misappropriations of Robson’s assets).
Tutorial note: Third party reliance on the report seems unlikely as Prescott has ‘substantial cash resources’ and may not
need to obtain loan finance.

(ii) Can we entertain our clients as a gesture of goodwill or is corporate hospitality ruled out? (3 marks)


For EACH of the three FAQs, explain the threats to objectivity that may arise and the safeguards that should

be available to manage them to an acceptable level.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three questions.

(ii) Corporate hospitality
A partner in an audit firm is obviously in a position to influence the conduct and outcome of an audit. Therefore a
partner being on ‘too friendly’ terms with an audit client creates a familiarity threat. Other members of the audit team
may not exert as much influence on the audit.
A self-interest threat may also be perceived (e.g. if corporate hospitality is provided to keep a prestigious client).
There is no absolute prohibition against corporate hospitality provided:
■ the value attached to such hospitality is ‘insignificant’; and
■ the ‘frequency, nature and cost’ of the hospitality is reasonable.
Thus, flying the directors of an audit client for weekends away could be seen as significant. Similarly, entertaining an
audit client on a regular basis could be seen as unacceptable.
Partners and staff of Boleyn will need to be objective in their assessments of the significance or reasonableness of the
hospitality offered. (Would ‘a reasonable and informed third party’ conclude that the hospitality will or is likely to be
seen to impair your objectivity?)
If they have any doubts they should discuss the matter in the first instance with the audit engagement partner, who
should refer the matter to the ethics partner if in doubt.

ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第2篇

(b) Provide the directors of Acrux Ltd with a detailed explanation of the maximum rate of tax that will be suffered

on both the distributed and non-distributed profits of the non-UK resident investee companies where:

(1) there is a double tax treaty between the UK and the country in which the individual companies are

resident; and

(2) there is no such double tax treaty.

Note: you are not required to explain the position of the overseas resident branches. (6 marks)

(b) Rate of tax on profits of non-UK resident investee companies
Undistributed profits
The companies will be subject to tax in the countries in which they are resident; this is because of their residency status or
because they have a permanent establishment in that country. Undistributed profits will not be taxed in the UK.
The rate of tax on undistributed profits will therefore be the rate of tax in the country of residency of the respective companies.
Distributed profits with double tax treaty
The dividends received by Acrux Ltd from each of the overseas companies will be grossed up in respect of underlying tax (the
overseas corporation tax paid on the distributed profits) because Acrux Ltd will own at least 10% of the overseas companies.
The gross amount will then be included in Acrux Ltd’s profits chargeable to corporation tax.
The treaty will provide double tax relief in the UK for the overseas tax suffered in respect of each dividend up to a maximum
of the UK tax on the grossed up overseas dividend. As a result of the double tax relief, the overall rate of tax suffered will be
the higher of the UK rate paid by Acrux Ltd and the overseas tax rate borne by the overseas company.
Where the rate of overseas tax in respect of a particular dividend exceeds the rate of corporation tax in the UK, excess foreign
tax will arise. This can be relieved, via onshore pooling, against the UK tax due on those dividends where the rate of tax in
the UK exceeds the rate overseas. This will reduce the overall rate of tax suffered on the total overseas profits of the overseas
companies as a whole.
Distributed profits with no double tax treaty
Where there is no double tax treaty, unilateral double tax relief will be available in the UK. This relief will operate in the same
way as double tax relief under a double tax treaty such that the overall rate of tax on each dividend will be the higher of the
UK rate paid by Acrux Ltd and the overseas rate borne by the overseas company. Relief via onshore pooling will also be

(ii) the factors that should be considered in the design of a reward scheme for BGL; (7 marks)

(ii) The factors that should be considered in the design of a reward scheme for BGL.
– Whether performance targets should be set with regard to results or effort. It is more difficult to set targets for
administrative and support staff since in many instances the results of their efforts are not easily quantifiable. For
example, sales administrators will improve levels of customer satisfaction but quantifying this is extremely difficult.
– Whether rewards should be monetary or non-monetary. Money means different things to different people. In many
instances people will prefer increased job security which results from improved organisational performance and
adopt a longer term-perspective. Thus the attractiveness of employee share option schemes will appeal to such
individuals. Well designed schemes will correlate the prosperity of the organisation with that of the individuals it
– Whether the reward promise should be implicit or explicit. Explicit reward promises are easy to understand but in
many respects management will have their hands tied. Implicit reward promises such as the ‘promise’ of promotion
for good performance is also problematic since not all organisations are large enough to offer a structured career
progression. Thus in situations where not everyone can be promoted there needs to be a range of alternative reward
systems in place to acknowledge good performance and encourage commitment from the workforce.
– The size and time span of the reward. This can be difficult to determine especially in businesses such as BGL
which are subject to seasonal variations. i.e. summerhouses will invariably be purchased prior to the summer
season! Hence activity levels may vary and there remains the potential problem of assessing performance when
an organisation operates with surplus capacity.
– Whether the reward should be individual or group based. This is potentially problematic for BGL since the assembly
operatives comprise some individuals who are responsible for their own output and others who work in groups.
Similarly with regard to the sales force then the setting of individual performance targets is problematic since sales
territories will vary in terms of geographical spread and customer concentration.
– Whether the reward scheme should involve equity participation? Such schemes invariably appeal to directors and
senior managers but should arguably be open to all individuals if ‘perceptions of inequity’ are to be avoided.
– Tax considerations need to be taken into account when designing a reward scheme.

(c) Risk committee members can be either executive or non-executive.


(i) Distinguish between executive and non-executive directors. (2 marks)

(c) Risk committee members can be either executive on non-executive.
(i) Distinguish between executive and non-executive directors
Executive directors are full time members of staff, have management positions in the organisation, are part of the
executive structure and typically have industry or activity-relevant knowledge or expertise, which is the basis of their
value to the organisation.
Non-executive directors are engaged part time by the organisation, bring relevant independent, external input and
scrutiny to the board, and typically occupy positions in the committee structure.

This information was taken from an internal newsletter of The Knowledge Partnership LLP (TKP), a company which offers project and software consultancy work for clients based in Zeeland. The newsletter was dated 2 November 2014 and describes two projects currently being undertaken by the partnership.

Project One

In this project, one of our clients was just about to place a contract for a time recording system to help them monitor and estimate construction contracts when we were called in by the Finance Director. He was concerned about the company supplying the software package. ‘They only have an annual revenue of $5m’, he said, ‘and that worries me.’ TKP analysed software companies operating in Zeeland. It found that 200 software companies were registered in Zeeland with annual revenues of between $3m and $10m. Of these, 20 went out of business last year. This compared to a 1% failure rate for software companies with revenues of more than $100m per year. We presented this information to the client and suggested that this could cause a short-term support problem. The client immediately re-opened the procurement process. Eventually they bought a solution from a much larger well-known software supplier. It is a popular software solution, used in many larger companies.

The client has now asked us to help with the implementation of the package. A budget for the project has been agreed and has been documented in an agreed, signed-off, business case. The client has a policy of never re-visiting its business cases once they have been accepted; they see this as essential for effective cost control. We are currently working with the primary users of the software – account managers (using time and cost data to monitor contracts) and the project support office (using time and cost data to improve contract estimating) – to ensure that they can use the software effectively when it is implemented. We have also given ‘drop in’ briefing sessions for the client’s employees who are entering the time and cost data analysed by the software. They already record this information on a legacy system and so all they will see is a bright new user interface, but we need to keep them informed about our implementation. We are also looking at data migration from the current legacy system. We think some of the current data might be of poor quality, so we have established a strategy for data cleansing (through offshore data input) if this problem materialises. We currently estimate that the project will go live in May 2015.

Project Two

In this project, the client is the developer of the iProjector, a tiny phone-size projector which is portable, easy to use and offers high definition projection. The client was concerned that their product is completely dependent on a specialist image-enhancing chip designed and produced by a small start-up technology company. They asked TKP to investigate this company. We confirmed their fears. The company has been trading for less than three years and it has a very inexperienced management team. We suggested that the client should establish an escrow agreement for design details of the chip and suggested a suitable third party to hold this agreement. We also suggested that significant stocks of the chip should be maintained. The client also asked TKP to look at establishing patents for the iProjector throughout the world. Again, using our customer contacts, we put them in touch with a company which specialises in this. We are currently engaged with the client in examining the risk that a major telephone producer will launch a competitive product with functionality and features similar to the iProjector.

The iProjector is due to be launched on 1 May 2015 and we have been engaged to give advice on the launch of the product. The launch has been heavily publicised, a prestigious venue booked and over 400 attendees are expected. TKP have arranged for many newspaper journalists to attend. The product is not quite finished, so although orders will be taken at the launch, the product is not expected to ship until June 2015.

Further information:

TKP only undertakes projects in the business culture which it understands and where it feels comfortable. Consequently, it does not undertake assignments outside Zeeland.

TKP has $10,000,000 of consultant’s liability insurance underwritten by Zeeland Insurance Group (ZIG).


(a) Analyse how TKP itself and the two projects described in the scenario demonstrate the principles of effective risk management. (15 marks)

(b) Describe the principle of the triple constraint (scope, time and cost) on projects and discuss its implications in the two projects described in the scenario. (10 marks)


(a) The first stages of risk management are the identification, descriptions and assessment of the risk. This assessment is primarily concerned with the likelihood of them occurring and the severity of impact on the organisation or project should they occur. Sometimes the likelihood is a subjective probability, the opinions of experienced managers or experts in the field. On other occasions, there is some statistical evidence on which to base the assessment. For example, in project 1, TKP identified that 20 IT software companies with annual revenues between $3m and $10m went out of business last year. This represented 10% of the total number of software companies reporting such revenues. Its report to the client suggested that there was a 10% chance of the current preferred supplier (who had a turnover of $5m) ceasing business and this would have a significant short-term support implication. This compared to a business failure rate of 1% for software companies with an annual revenue exceeding $100m. The client felt that the probability of supplier failure was too high, so eventually bought a software solution from a much larger, well-known, software supplier. In this case, the likelihood of the risk led the client to changing its procurement decision. The risk itself does not go away, large companies also fail, but the probability of the risk occurring is reduced.

The avoidance (or prevention) of a risk is a legitimate risk response. In project 1, the client could avoid the risk ‘failure of the supplier’ by commissioning an in-house bespoke solution. Similarly, TKP itself avoids the risks associated with trading in different cultures, by restricting its projects to clients based in Zeeland.

There are three further responses to risks.

Risk mitigation (or risk contingency) actions are what the organisation will do to counter the risk, should the risk take place. Mitigation actions are designed to lessen the impact on the organisation of the risk occurring. In project 2, TKP recommends that the producers of the iProjector should establish an escrow agreement with the company which produces the chip which enhances the quality of the projected image. It was agreed that design details of this chip should be lodged with a third party who would make them available to the producers of the iProjector should the company which owned the enhanced image technology cease trading. This is a mitigation approach to the risk ‘failure of the supplier’. The supplier is relatively high risk (less than three years of trading, inexperienced management team), and the product (the iProjector) is completely dependent upon the supply of the image enhancing chip. The failure of the business supplying the chips would have significant impact on iProjector production. If the escrow agreement had to be enacted, then it would take the producers of the iProjector some time to establish alternative production. Consequently (and TKP have suggested this), it might be prudent to hold significant stocks of the chips to ensure continued production. In such circumstances, the need to mitigate risk is more important than implementing contemporary just-in-time supply practices. In some instances a mitigation action can be put in place immediately. In other instances risk mitigation actions are only enacted should the risk occur. The risk has been recognised and the organisation has a rehearsed or planned response. For example, in project 1, TKP has identified ‘poor quality of current data’ as a risk associated with the migration of data from the current systems to the proposed software package solution. It has established a strategy for data cleansing if that risk actually materialises. Importantly, the client knows in advance how to respond to a risk. It avoids making a hasty, ill-thought out response to an unforeseen event.

Risk transfer actions are concerned with transferring the risk and the assessment and consequences of that risk to another party. This can be done in a number of ways. TKP itself has liability insurance which potentially protects the company from the financial consequences of being sued by clients for giving poor advice. TKP has identified this as a risk, but is unlikely to be able to assess either the probability of that risk occurring or establishing meaningful mitigation measures to minimise the effect of that risk. Consequently, the responsibility for both of these is transferred to an insurance company. They establish the risk, through a series of questions, and compute a premium which reflects the risk and the compensation maximum which will have to be paid if that risk occurs. TKP pays the insurance premiums. TKP itself also transfers risks in project 2. It is unsure about how to establish patents and so it refers the client to another company. Transferring avoids the risk associated with ‘establishing the patent incorrectly’ and the financial consequences of this.

Finally, risk may be identified but just accepted as part of doing business. Risk acceptance is particularly appropriate when the probability of the risk is low or the impact of that risk is relatively insignificant. Risks may also be accepted when there are no realistic mitigation or transfer actions. In project 2, the producers of the iProjector are concerned that there is ‘a risk that a major telephone producer will launch a product with features and functionality similar to ours’. This is a risk, but there is little that can be done about it. Risks of competition are often best accepted.

The discussion above is primarily concerned with deciding what action to take for each risk. Once these actions are agreed, then a plan may be required to put them into place. For example, establishing an escrow agreement will require certain activities to be done.

Risks must also be monitored. For example, in project 2, the risk of supplier failure can be monitored through a company checking agency. Many of these companies offer a continuous monitoring service which evaluates financial results, share prices and other significant business movements. Reports are produced, highlighting factors which may be of particular concern. Risks will also disappear once certain stages of the project have been completed and, similarly, new ones will appear, often due to changes in the business environment. Many organisations use a risk register or risk log to document and monitor risks and such logs often specify a risk owner, a person responsible for adequate management of the risk.

(b) Every project is constrained in some way by its scope, time and cost. These limitations are often called the triple constraint. The scope concerns what has to be delivered by the project, time is when the project should deliver by, and cost is concerned with how much can be spent on achieving the deliverable (the budget). Quality is also an important feature of projects. Some authors include quality in their triple constraint (instead of scope), others add it as a further constraint (quadruple constraint), whilst others believe that quality considerations are inherent in setting the scope, time and cost goals of a project. How a particular project is managed depends greatly on the pressures in the triple constraint.

In project 1, the reluctance of the company to re-visit the business case means that the budget (or cost) of the solution is fixed. The implementation date might be desirable, but it does not seem to be business critical. It is an internal system and so any delays in implementation will not affect customers. It will also be a relatively seamless transition for most employees in the company. They already record the time record details which the new system will collect and so all they will see is a changed user interface. Only the direct users of the output (account managers and the project office) will be affected by any delay. The scope of the software package is also pre-defined. If it fails to meet requirements, then the users will have to adjust their expectations or business methods. There is no money to finance customisation or add-on systems, so in this sense the scope of the solution is also fixed. The quality of the software, in terms of its reliability and robustness, should also be good, as it is a popular software solution used in many large companies.

In project 2, the launch date is fixed. It has been heavily publicised, the venue is booked and over 400 attendees are expected, including newspaper journalists. Thus the time of the project is fixed. However, although orders will be taken at the launch, the product is not expected to ship until a month after launch. Thus the scope of the product shown at the launch date might be restricted and inherent quality problems might not yet be solved. Any defects can be explained away (this is a pre-production model) or, more effectively, they may be avoided by ensuring that the product is demonstrated to attendees, not used by them. The project manager must ensure that key functionality of the product is available on launch date (such as producing an image of a certain quality), but other functionality, not central to the presentation (for example, promised support for all image file formats) could be delayed until after the presentation. The company should make extra funds available to ensure that the launch date is successful.

4 A properly conducted appraisal interview is fundamental in ensuring the success of an organisation’s performance

appraisal system.


(a) Describe three approaches to conducting the appraisal interview. (5 marks)

4 Appraisal systems are central to human resource management and understanding the difficulties of such schemes and the correct
approach to them is necessary if the appraisal process is to be successful and worthwhile.
(a) The manager conducting the interview might base it on one of three approaches.
The Tell and Sell Method. The manager explains to the employee being appraised how the appraisal assessment is to be undertaken and gains acceptance of the evaluation and improvement plan from the employee. Human resource skills are important with this approach in order for the manager to be able to provide constructive criticism and to motivate the employee.
The Tell and Listen Method. The manager invites the employee to respond to the way that the interview is to be conducted.This approach requires counselling skills and encouragement to allow the employee to participate fully in the interview. A particular feature of this approach is the encouragment of feedback from the employee.
The Problem Solving Method. With this method the manager takes a more helpful approach and concentrates on the work problems of the employee, who is encouraged to think through his or her problems and to provide their own intrinsic motivation.

1 Your client, Island Co, is a manufacturer of machinery used in the coal extraction industry. You are currently planning

the audit of the financial statements for the year ended 30 November 2007. The draft financial statements show

revenue of $125 million (2006 – $103 million), profit before tax of $5·6 million (2006 – $5·1 million) and total

assets of $95 million (2006 – $90 million). Your firm was appointed as auditor to Island Co for the first time in June


Island Co designs, constructs and installs machinery for five key customers. Payment is due in three instalments: 50%

is due when the order is confirmed (stage one), 25% on delivery of the machinery (stage two), and 25% on successful

installation in the customer’s coal mine (stage three). Generally it takes six months from the order being finalised until

the final installation.

At 30 November, there is an amount outstanding of $2·85 million from Jacks Mine Co. The amount is a disputed

stage three payment. Jacks Mine Co is refusing to pay until the machinery, which was installed in August 2007, is

running at 100% efficiency.

One customer, Sawyer Co, communicated in November 2007, via its lawyers with Island Co, claiming damages for

injuries suffered by a drilling machine operator whose arm was severely injured when a machine malfunctioned. Kate

Shannon, the chief executive officer of Island Co, has told you that the claim is being ignored as it is generally known

that Sawyer Co has a poor health and safety record, and thus the accident was their fault. Two orders which were

placed by Sawyer Co in October 2007 have been cancelled.

Work in progress is valued at $8·5 million at 30 November 2007. A physical inventory count was held on

17 November 2007. The chief engineer estimated the stage of completion of each machine at that date. One of the

major components included in the coal extracting machinery is now being sourced from overseas. The new supplier,

Locke Co, is located in Spain and invoices Island Co in euros. There is a trade payable of $1·5 million owing to Locke

Co recorded within current liabilities.

All machines are supplied carrying a one year warranty. A warranty provision is recognised on the balance sheet at

$2·5 million (2006 – $2·4 million). Kate Shannon estimates the cost of repairing defective machinery reported by

customers, and this estimate forms the basis of the provision.

Kate Shannon owns 60% of the shares in Island Co. She also owns 55% of Pacific Co, which leases a head office to

Island Co. Kate is considering selling some of her shares in Island Co in late January 2008, and would like the audit

to be finished by that time.


(a) Using the information provided, identify and explain the principal audit risks, and any other matters to be

considered when planning the final audit for Island Co for the year ended 30 November 2007.

Note: your answer should be presented in the format of briefing notes to be used at a planning meeting.

Requirement (a) includes 2 professional marks. (13 marks)

(a) Briefing Notes
Subject: Principal Audit Risks – Island Co
Revenue Recognition – timing
Island Co raises sales invoices in three stages. There is potential for breach of IAS 18 Revenue, which states that revenue
should only be recognised once the seller has the right to receive it, in other words the seller has performed its contractual
obligations. This right does not necessarily correspond to amounts falling due for payment in accordance with an invoice
schedule agreed with a customer as part of a contract. Island Co appears to receive payment from its customers in advance
of performing any obligation, as the stage one invoice is raised when an order is confirmed i.e. before any work has actually
taken place. This creates the potential for revenue to be recognised too early, in advance of any performance of contractual
obligation. When a payment is received in advance of performance, a liability should be recognised equal to the amount
received, representing the obligation under the contract. Therefore a significant risk is that revenue is overstated and liabilities
Tutorial note: Equivalent guidance is also provided in IAS 11 Construction Contracts and credit will be awarded where
candidates discuss revenue recognition under IAS 11 as Island Co is providing a single substantial asset for a customer
under the terms of a contract.
Disputed receivable
The amount owed from Jacks Mine Co is highly material as it represents 50·9% of profit before tax, 2·3% of revenue, and
3% of total assets. The risk is that the receivable is overstated if no impairment of the disputed receivable is recognised.
Legal claim
The claim should be investigated seriously by Island Co. The chief executive officer’s (CEO) opinion that the claim will not
result in any financial consequence for Island Co is na?ve and flippant. Damages could be awarded against Island Co if it is
found that the machinery is faulty. The recurring high level of warranty provision implies that machinery faults are fairly
common and therefore the accident could be the result of a defective machine being supplied to Sawyer Co. The risk is that
no provision is created for the potential damages under IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, if the
likelihood of paying damages is considered probable. Alternatively, if the likelihood of damages being paid to Sawyer Co is
considered a possibility then a disclosure note should be made in the financial statements describing the nature and possible
financial effect of the contingent liability. As discussed below, the CEO, Kate Shannon, has an incentive not to make a
provision or disclose a contingent liability due to the planned share sale post year end.
A further risk is that any legal fees associated with the claim have not been accrued within the financial statements. As the
claim has arisen during the year, the expense must be included in this year’s income statement, even if the claim is still ongoing
at the year end.
The fact that the legal claim is effectively being ignored may cast doubts on the overall integrity of senior management, and
on the integrity of the financial statements. Management representations should be approached with a degree of professional
scepticism during the audit.
Sawyer Co has cancelled two orders. If the amounts are still outstanding at the year end then it is highly likely that Sawyer
Co will not pay the invoiced amounts, and thus receivables are overstated. If the stage one payments have already been made,
then Sawyer Co may claim a refund, in which case a provision should be made to repay the amount, or a contingent liability
disclosed in a note to the financial statements.
Sawyer Co is one of only five major customers, and losing this customer could have future going concern implications for
Island Co if a new source of revenue cannot be found to replace the lost income stream from Sawyer Co. If the legal claim
becomes public knowledge, and if Island Co is found to have supplied faulty machinery, then it will be difficult to attract new
A case of this nature could bring bad publicity to Island Co, a potential going concern issue if it results in any of the five key
customers terminating orders with Island Co. The auditors should plan to extend the going concern work programme to
incorporate the issues noted above.
Work in progress is material to the financial statements, representing 8·9% of total assets. The inventory count was held two
weeks prior to the year end. There is an inherent risk that the valuation has not been correctly rolled forward to a year end
The key risk is the estimation of the stage of completion of work in progress. This is subjective, and knowledge appears to
be confined to the chief engineer. Inventory could be overvalued if the machines are assessed to be more complete than they
actually are at the year end. Absorption of labour costs and overheads into each machine is a complex calculation and must
be done consistently with previous years.
It will also be important that consumable inventories not yet utilised on a machine, e.g. screws, nuts and bolts, are correctly
valued and included as inventories of raw materials within current assets.
Overseas supplier
As the supplier is new, controls may not yet have been established over the recording of foreign currency transactions.
Inherent risk is high as the trade payable should be retranslated using the year end exchange rate per IAS 21 The Effects of
Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. If the retranslation is not performed at the year end, the trade payable could be
significantly over or under valued, depending on the movement of the dollar to euro exchange rate between the purchase date
and the year end. The components should remain at historic cost within inventory valuation and should not be retranslated
at the year end.
Warranty provision
The warranty provision is material at 2·6% of total assets (2006 – 2·7%). The provision has increased by only $100,000,
an increase of 4·2%, compared to a revenue increase of 21·4%. This could indicate an underprovision as the percentage
change in revenue would be expected to be in line with the percentage change in the warranty provision, unless significant
improvements had been made to the quality of machines installed for customers during the year. This appears unlikely given
the legal claim by Sawyer Co, and the machines installed at Jacks Mine Co operating inefficiently. The basis of the estimate
could be understated to avoid charging the increase in the provision as an expense through the income statement. This is of
special concern given that it is the CEO and majority shareholder who estimates the warranty provision.
Majority shareholder
Kate Shannon exerts control over Island Co via a majority shareholding, and by holding the position of CEO. This greatly
increases the inherent risk that the financial statements could be deliberately misstated, i.e. overvaluation of assets,
undervaluation of liabilities, and thus overstatement of profits. The risk is severe at this year end as Kate Shannon is hoping
to sell some Island Co shares post year end. As the price that she receives for these shares will be to a large extent influenced
by the balance sheet position of the company at 30 November 2007, she has a definite interest in manipulating the financial
statements for her own personal benefit. For example:
– Not recognising a provision or contingent liability for the legal claim from Sawyer Co
– Not providing for the potentially irrecoverable receivable from Jacks Mines Co
– Not increasing the warranty provision
– Recognising revenue earlier than permitted by IAS 18 Revenue.
Related party transactions
Kate Shannon controls Island Co and also controls Pacific Co. Transactions between the two companies should be disclosed
per IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures. There is risk that not all transactions have been disclosed, or that a transaction has
been disclosed at an inappropriate value. Details of the lease contract between the two companies should be disclosed within
a note to the financial statements, in particular, any amounts owed from Island Co to Pacific Co at 30 November 2007 should
be disclosed.
Other issues
– Kate Shannon wants the audit to be completed as soon as possible, which brings forward the deadline for completion
of the audit. The audit team may not have time to complete all necessary procedures, or there may not be time for
adequate reviews to be carried out on the work performed. Detection risk, and thus audit risk is increased, and the
overall quality of the audit could be jeopardised.
– This is especially important given that this is the first year audit and therefore the audit team will be working with a
steep learning curve. Audit procedures may take longer than originally planned, yet there is little time to extend
procedures where necessary.
– Kate Shannon may also exert considerable influence on the members of the audit team to ensure that the financial
statements show the best possible position of Island Co in view of her share sale. It is crucial that the audit team
members adhere strictly to ethical guidelines and that independence is beyond question.
– Due to the seriousness of the matters noted above, a final matter to be considered at the planning stage is that a second
partner review (Engagement Quality Control Review) should be considered for the audit this year end. A suitable
independent reviewer should be indentified, and time planned and budgeted for at the end of the assignment.
From the range of issues discussed in these briefing notes, it can be seen that the audit of Island Co will be a relatively high
risk engagement.

This scenario summarises the development of a company called Rock Bottom through three phases, from its founding in 1965 to 2008 when it ceased trading.

Phase 1 (1965–1988)

In 1965 customers usually purchased branded electrical goods, largely produced by well-established domestic companies, from general stores that stocked a wide range of household products. However, in that year, a recent university graduate, Rick Hein, established his first shop specialising solely in the sale of electrical goods. In contrast to the general stores, Rick Hein’s shop predominantly sold imported Japanese products which were smaller, more reliable and more sophisticated than the products of domestic competitors. Rick Hein quickly established a chain of shops, staffed by young people who understood the capabilities of the products they were selling. He backed this up with national advertising in the press, an innovation at the time for such a specialist shop. He branded his shops as ‘Rock Bottom’, a name which specifically referred to his cheap prices, but also alluded to the growing importance of

rock music and its influence on product sales. In 1969, 80% of sales were of music centres, turntables, amplifiers and speakers, bought by the newly affluent young. Rock Bottom began increasingly to specialise in selling audio equipment.

Hein also developed a high public profile. He dressed unconventionally and performed a number of outrageous stunts that publicised his company. He also encouraged the managers of his stores to be equally outrageous. He rewarded their individuality with high salaries, generous bonus schemes and autonomy. Many of the shops were extremely successful, making their managers (and some of their staff) relatively wealthy people.

However, by 1980 the profitability of the Rock Bottom shops began to decline significantly. Direct competitors using a similar approach had emerged, including specialist sections in the large general stores that had initially failed to react to the challenge of Rock Bottom. The buying public now expected its electrical products to be cheap and reliable.

Hein himself became less flamboyant and toned down his appearance and actions to satisfy the banks who were becoming an increasingly important source of the finance required to expand and support his chain of shops.

Phase 2 (1989–2002)

In 1988 Hein considered changing the Rock Bottom shops into a franchise, inviting managers to buy their own shops (which at this time were still profitable) and pursuing expansion though opening new shops with franchisees from outside the company. However, instead, he floated the company on the country’s stock exchange. He used some of the capital raised to expand the business. However, he also sold shares to help him throw the ‘party of a lifetime’ and to purchase expensive goods and gifts for his family. Hein became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the newly quoted company, but over the next thirteen years his relationship with his board and shareholders became increasingly difficult. Gradually new financial controls and reporting systems were put in place. Most of the established managers left as controls became more centralised and formal. The company’s performance was solid but unspectacular. Hein complained that ‘business was not fun any more’. The company was legally required to publish directors’ salaries in its annual report and the generous salary package enjoyed by the Chairman and CEO increasingly became an issue and it dominated the 2002 Annual General Meeting (AGM). Hein was embarrassed by its publication and the discussion it led to in the national media. He felt that it was an infringement of his privacy and

civil liberties.

Phase 3 (2003–2008)

In 2003 Hein found the substantial private equity investment necessary to take Rock Bottom private again. He also used all of his personal fortune to help re-acquire the company from the shareholders. He celebrated ‘freeing Rock Bottom from its shackles’ by throwing a large celebration party. Celebrities were flown in from all over the world to attend. However, most of the new generation of store managers found Hein’s style. to be too loose and unfocused. He became rude and angry about their lack of entrepreneurial spirit. Furthermore, changes in products and how they were purchased meant that fewer people bought conventional audio products from specialist shops. The reliability of these products now meant that they were replaced relatively infrequently. Hein, belatedly, started to consider selling via an Internet site. Turnover and profitability plummeted. In 2007 Hein again considered franchising the company,but he realised that this was unlikely to be successful. In early 2008 the company ceased trading and Hein himself,now increasingly vilified and attacked by the press, filed for personal bankruptcy.


(a) Analyse the reasons for Rock Bottom’s success or failure in each of the three phases identified in the

scenario. Evaluate how Rick Hein’s leadership style. contributed to the success or failure of each phase.

(18 marks)

(b) Rick Hein considered franchising the Rock Bottom brand at two points in its history – 1988 and 2007.

Explain the key factors that would have made franchising Rock Bottom feasible in 1988, but would have

made it ‘unlikely to be successful’ in 2007. (7 marks)


(a) The product life cycle model suggests that a product passes through six stages: introduction, development, growth, shakeout,
maturity and decline. The first Rock Bottom phase appears to coincide with the introduction, development and growth periods
of the products offered by the company. These highly specified, high quality products were new to the country and were
quickly adopted by a certain consumer segment (see below). The life cycle concept also applies to services, and the innovative
way in which Rock Bottom sold and marketed the products distinguished the company from potential competitors. Not only
were these competitors still selling inferior and older products but their retail methods looked outdated compared with Rock Bottom’s bright, specialist shops. Rock Bottom’s entry into the market-place also exploited two important changes in the
external environment. The first was the technological advance of the Japanese consumer electronics industry. The second
was the growing economic power of young people, who wished to spend their increasing disposable income on products that
allowed them to enjoy popular music. Early entrants into an industry gain experience of that industry sooner than others. This
may not only be translated into cost advantages but also into customer loyalty that helps them through subsequent stages of
the product’s life cycle. Rock Bottom enjoyed the advantages of a first mover in this industry.
Hein’s leadership style. appears to have been consistent with contemporary society and more than acceptable to his young
target market. As an entrepreneur, his charismatic leadership was concerned with building a vision for the organisation and
then energising people to achieve it. The latter he achieved through appointing branch managers who reflected, to some
degree, his own style. and approach. His willingness to delegate considerable responsibility to these leaders, and to reward
them well, was also relatively innovative. The shops were also staffed by young people who understood the capabilities of the
products they were selling. It was an early recognition that intangible resources of skills and knowledge were important to the
In summary, in the first phase Rock Bottom’s organisation and Hein’s leadership style. appear to have been aligned with
contemporary society, the customer base, employees and Rock Bottom’s position in the product/service life cycle.
The second phase of the Rock Bottom story appears to reflect the shakeout and maturity phases of the product life cycle. The
entry of competitors into the market is a feature of the growth stage. However, it is in the shakeout stage that the market
becomes saturated with competitors. The Rock Bottom product and service approach is easily imitated. Hein initially reacted
to these new challenges by a growing maturity, recognising that outrageous behaviour might deter the banks from lending to
him. However, the need to raise money to fund expansion and a latent need to realise (and enjoy) his investment led to the
company being floated on the country’s stock exchange. This, eventually, created two problems.
The first was the need for the company to provide acceptable returns to shareholders. This would have been a new challenge
for Hein. He would have to not only maintain dividends to external shareholders, but he would also have to monitor and
improve the publicly quoted share price. In an attempt to establish an organisation that could deliver such value, changes
were made in the organisational structure and style. Most of the phase 1 entrepreneur-style. managers left. This may have
been inevitable anyway as Rock Bottom would have had problems continuing with such high individual reward packages in
a maturing market. However, the new public limited organisation also demanded managers who were more transactional
leaders, focusing on designing systems and controlling performance. This style. of management was alien to Rick’s approach.
The second problem was the need for the organisation to become more transparent. The publishing of Hein’s financial details
was embarrassing, particularly as his income fuelled a life-style. that was becoming less acceptable to society. What had once
appeared innovative and amusing now looked like an indulgence. The challenge now was for Hein to change his leadership
style. to suit the new situation. However, he ultimately failed to do this. Like many leaders who have risen to their position
through entrepreneurial ability and a dominant spirit, the concept of serving stakeholders rather than ordering them around
proved too difficult to grasp. The sensible thing would have been to leave Rock Bottom and start afresh. However, like many
entrepreneurs he was emotionally attached to the company and so he persuaded a group of private equity financiers to help
him buy it back. Combining the roles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is also controversial and likely to attract
criticism concerning corporate governance.

In summary, in the second phase of Hein’s leadership he failed to change his approach to reflect changing social values, a
maturing product/service market-place and the need to serve new and important stakeholders in the organisation. He clearly
saw the public limited company as a ‘shackle’ on his ambition and its obligations an infringement of his personal privacy.
It can be argued that Hein took Rock Bottom back into private ownership just as the product life cycle moved into its decline
stage. The product life cycle is a timely reminder that any product or service has a finite life. Forty years earlier, as a young
man, Hein was in touch with the technological and social changes that created a demand for his product and service.
However, he had now lost touch with the forces shaping the external environment. Products have now moved on. Music is
increasingly delivered through downloaded files that are then played through computers (for home use) or MP3s (for portable
use). Even where consumers use traditional electronic equipment, the reliability of this equipment means that it is seldom
replaced. The delivery method, through specialised shops, which once seemed so innovative is now widely imitated and
increasingly, due to the Internet, less cost-effective. Consumers of these products are knowledgeable buyers and are only
willing to purchase, after careful cost and delivery comparisons, through the Internet. Hence, Hein is in a situation where he
faces more competition to supply products which are used and replaced less frequently, using a sales channel that is
increasingly uncompetitive. Consequently, Hein’s attempt to re-vitalise the shops by using the approach he adopted in phase
1 of the company was always doomed to failure. This failure was also guaranteed by the continued presence of the managers
appointed in phase 2 of the company. These were managers used to tight controls and targets set by centralised management.
To suddenly be let loose was not what they wanted and Hein appears to have reacted to their inability to act entrepreneurially
with anger and abuse. Hein’s final acts of reinvention concerned the return to a hedonistic, conspicuous life style. that he had
enjoyed in the early days of the company. He probably felt that this was possible now that he did not have the reporting
requirements of the public limited company. However, he had failed to recognise significant changes in society. He celebrated
the freeing of ‘Rock Bottom from its shackles’ by throwing a large celebration party. Celebrities were flown in from all over the
world to attend. It seems inevitable that the cost and carbon footprint of such an event would now attract criticism.
Finally, in summary, Hein’s approach and leadership style. in phase 3 became increasingly out of step with society’s
expectations, customers’ requirements and employees’ expectations. However, unlike phase 2, Hein was now free of the
responsibilities and controls of professional management in a public limited company. This led him to conspicuous activities
that further devalued the brand, meaning that its demise was inevitable.

(b) At the end of the first phase Hein still had managers who were entrepreneurial in their outlook. It might have been attractive
for them to become franchisees, particularly as this might be a way of protecting their income through the more challenging
stages of the product and service life cycle that lay ahead. However, by the time Hein came to look at franchising again (phase
3), the managers were unlikely to be of the type that would take up the challenge of running a franchise. These were
managers used to meeting targets within the context of centrally determined policies and budgets within a public limited
company. Hein would have to make these employees redundant (at significant cost) and with no certainty that he could find
franchisees to replace them.
At the end of phase 1, Rock Bottom was a strong brand, associated with youth and innovation. First movers often retain
customer loyalty even when their products and approach have been imitated by new aggressive entrants to the market. A
strong brand is essential for a successful franchise as it is a significant part of what the franchisee is buying. However, by the
time Hein came to look at franchising again in phase 3, the brand was devalued by his behaviour and incongruent with
customer expectations and sales channels. For example, it had no Internet sales channel. If Hein had developed Rock Bottom
as a franchise it would have given him the opportunity to focus on building the brand, rather than financing the expansion
of the business through the issue of shares.
At the end of phase 1, Rock Bottom was still a financially successful company. If it had been franchised at this point, then
Hein could have realised some of his investment (through franchise fees) and used some of this to reward himself, and the
rest of the money could have been used to consolidate the brand. Much of the future financial risk would have been passed
to the franchisees. There would have been no need to take Rock Bottom public and so suffer the scrutiny associated with a
public limited company. However, by the time Hein came to look at franchising again in phase 3, most of the shops were
trading at a loss. He saw franchising as a way of disposing of the company in what he hoped was a sufficiently well-structured
way. In effect, it was to minimise losses. It seems highly unlikely that franchisees would have been attracted by investing in
something that was actually making a loss. Even if they were, it is unlikely that the franchise fees (and hence the money
immediately realised) would be very high.

3 The ‘person specification’ is derived from the job description.


(a) Explain what is meant by the terms:

(i) ‘person specification’; (4 marks)

3 Overview:
A traditional job description can only list or outline the tangible elements of a job. As work becomes more challenging, more
information is required about the skills needed to perform. that job. A person specification is of greater value in the professional
sector, where it is inappropriate to assume repetition and where there is a greater degree of discretion in performing the task.
Part (a):
(i) A person specification - also referred to as a personnel specification – provides the organisation with a profile of the kind of
person that would match the needs of the post. It sets out in written detail the education, qualifications, training, experience,
personal attributes and competencies a post holder must possess to perform. the task to the satisfaction of the organisation.
It describes the person needed to fulfil the task.

ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第3篇

(c) The OECD’s Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) recommends preventative measures to be

taken by independent legal professionals and accountants (including sole practitioners, partners and employed

professionals within professional firms).


Describe FOUR measures that assist in preventing professional accountants from being used for money

laundering purposes. (8 marks)

(c) Measures
The following measures are designed to assist in preventing professional accountants from being used for money laundering
■ developing programmes against money laundering and terrorist financing;
■ compliance officer;
■ employee training programme;
■ customer due diligence (CDD);
■ establishing/enhancing record keeping systems for:
– all transactions; and
– the verification of clients’ identities;
■ reporting of suspicious transactions;
■ refusing to have relationships with ‘shell banks’.
Tutorial note: Only FOUR are required.
Developing programmes
■ Internal policies, procedures and controls should be established and recorded including:
– compliance management arrangements (including appointment of a compliance officer);
– an ongoing employee training programme;
– an audit function to test the system.
Compliance officer
■ Appointing a compliance officer having a suitable level of seniority and experience (e.g. one of the principals of an
accountancy firm).
■ Making alternative arrangements (e.g. appointing a deputy) when the compliance officer is going to be unavailable for
a period of time (as reports have to be made as soon as is reasonably practicable).
■ The compliance officer being made responsible for:
– receiving and assessing money laundering reports from colleagues;
– making reports to the FIU; and
– ensuring that individuals are adequately trained.
Employee training programme
■ Providing an employee training programme on:
– relevant legislation (e.g. the main money laundering offences);
– ethical guidance (e.g. ACCA’s ‘Guidance for Accountants’); and
– the firm’s procedures to forestall and prevent money laundering.
■ Establishing a culture of complying with money laundering requirements.
■ Documenting the provision of training (to demonstrate compliance).
■ Training methods may effectively include:
– attending conferences, seminars and training courses run by external organizations; and
– participating in computer based training courses.
Customer due diligence (CDD)
■ Firms should not keep anonymous accounts or accounts in obviously fictitious names.
■ Firms should verify the identity of their customers, when:
– establishing business relations;
– carrying out occasional transactions (e.g. above a designated threshold);
– there is a suspicion of money laundering or terrorist financing; or
– there is doubt about the reliability or adequacy of previously obtained customer identification data.
CDD measures should include:
■ Identifying the customer and verifying that customer’s identity using reliable, independent source documents, data or
Tutorial note: Similarly identify and verify the beneficial owner.
■ Obtaining information on the purpose and intended nature of the business relationship.
■ Conducting ongoing due diligence on business relationships by scrutinising transactions to ensure that they are
consistent with the firm’s knowledge of:
– the customer;
– their business and risk profile;
– the source of funds.
Tutorial note: These requirements should apply to all new customers and existing customers on the basis of materiality and
Record keeping
■ Maintaining all client identification records together with a record of all transactions, in a full audit trail form.
■ Maintaining records of transactions (both domestic or international) in a readily retrievable form. for a period of at least
five years (to facilitate swift compliance with information requests from the competent authorities).
Tutorial note: Such records must be sufficient to permit reconstruction of individual transactions (including the
amounts and types of currency involved, if any) so as to provide, if necessary, evidence for prosecution of criminal
■ Retaining client verification records throughout the period of the relationship and for five years after termination of the
■ Making available identification data and transaction records to domestic competent authorities upon appropriate
■ Applying ACCA’s Rules of Professional Conduct ‘Retention of books, files, working papers and other documents’.
■ Paying special attention to all complex, unusual large transactions, and all unusual patterns of transactions, which have
no apparent economic or visible lawful purpose (in accordance with ISA 240 ‘The Auditor’s Responsibility to Consider
Fraud in an Audit of Financial Statements ’).
Client identification
■ For an individual – inspecting official documents, with a photograph, establishing the client’s full name and permanent
address, e.g:
– a driving licence or passport, supported by;
– a recent utility bill.
■ For the entity – obtaining from the Registrar of Companies:
– certificate of incorporation;
– company’s registered address; and
– a list of shareholders and directors.
■ Checking the names of new clients against lists of known terrorists and other sanctions information.
■ For trusts – ascertaining:
– the nature and purpose of the trust;
– the original source of funding; and
– the identities of the trustees/controllers, principal settlers and beneficiaries.
Suspicion reporting
■ Prompt reporting of suspicions to the (FIU) in a suspicious transaction report (STR).
■ There should be no ‘de minimis’ concessions. Reporting should be irrespective of:
– the amount involved; or
– whether tax matters are involved.
Tutorial note: Attempted transactions should also be reported.
■ Enhancing confidentiality of the source of reports by:
– disclosing the compliance officer only once; and
– not naming the personnel making reports to the compliance officer.
■ Disclosing further information only if:
– legally required to do so; or
– otherwise justified, in the public interest.
Shell banks
Tutorial note: A ‘shell bank’ is a bank incorporated in a jurisdiction in which it has no physical presence and which is
unaffiliated with a regulated financial group.
■ Firms should guard against relationships with parties that permit their accounts to be used by shell banks.

4 Coral is the owner and managing director of Reef Ltd. She is considering the manner in which she will make her first

pension contributions. In November 2007 she inherited her mother’s house in the country of Kalania.

The following information has been extracted from client files and from telephone conversations with Coral.


– 1972 – Born in the country of Kalania. Her father, who died in 2002, was domiciled in Kalania.

– 1999 – Moved to the UK and has lived and worked here since then.

– 2001 – Subscribed for 100% of the ordinary share capital of Reef Ltd.

– Intends to sell Reef Ltd and return to live in the country of Kalania in 2012.

– No income apart from that received from Reef Ltd.

Reef Ltd:

– A UK resident company with annual profits chargeable to corporation tax of approximately £70,000.

– Four employees including Coral.

– Provides scuba diving lessons to members of the public.

Payments from Reef Ltd to Coral in 2007/08:

– Director’s fees of £460 per month.

– Dividends paid of £14,250 in June 2007 and £14,250 in September 2007.

Pension contributions:

– Coral has not so far made any pension contributions in the tax year 2007/08 but wishes to make gross pension

contributions of £9,000.

– The contributions are to be made by Reef Ltd or Coral or a combination of the two in such a way as to minimise

the total after tax cost.

– Any contributions made by Coral will be funded by an additional dividend from Reef Ltd.

House in the country of Kalania:

– Beachfront property with potential rental income of £550 per month after deduction of allowable expenditure.

– Coral will use it for holidays for two months each year.

The tax system in the country of Kalania:

– No capital gains tax or inheritance tax.

– Income tax at 8% on income arising in the country of Kalania.

– No double tax treaty with the UK.


(a) With the objective of minimising the total after tax cost, advise Coral as to whether the gross pension

contributions of £9,000 should be made:

– wholly by Reef Ltd; or

– by Coral to the extent that they are tax allowable with the balance made by Reef Ltd.

Your answer should include supporting calculations where necessary. (9 marks)



Note: requirement (a) includes 4 professional marks.

A central feature of the performance measurement system at TSC is the widespread use of league tables that display

each depot’s performance relative to one another.


(b) Evaluate the potential benefits and problems associated with the use of ‘league tables’ as a means of

measuring performance. (6 marks)

(b) A central feature of many performance measurement systems is the widespread use of league tables that display each
business unit’s performance relative to one another. In the case of service organisations such as TSC the use of league tables
emphasises the company’s critical success factors of profitability and quality of service by reporting results on a weekly basis
at the depot level. The fact that such league tables are used by management will actively encourage competition, in terms of
performance, among depots. The individual position of a business unit in the league table is keenly observed both by the
manager of that unit and his/her peers.
In theory, performance is transparent. In practice although each depot performs essentially the same function and is subject
to the same modes of measurement, circumstances pertaining to different business units may vary significantly. Some depots
may be situated near to the hub (main distribution centre), some may be located far away and some may be in urban zones
with well developed road networks whilst others may be in remote rural areas. Measuring performance via a league table
makes no allowance whatsoever for these relative differences, hence, inequality is built into the performance measurement
Moreover, depot managers might be held responsible for areas over which they have no formal control. The network nature
of the business suggests that there will be a high degree of interdependence of depots; the depot responsible for collection
will very often not be the depot responsible for delivery. Therefore, it is frequently the case that business may be gained for
which the collecting depot receives the revenue, but for which the delivering depot bears the cost. Obviously this impacts
upon the profit statements of both depots. The formal system might not recognise such difficulties, the corporate view being
that ‘the business needs to be managed’; the depots should therefore see any such anomalies as mild constraints to work
around rather than barriers to break down. In such circumstances delivering depots and collecting depots should discuss such
problems on an informal basis. Such informal discussions are aided by close communications between depots recognising
the interdependencies of the business.

5 (a) IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’ is divided into three parts:

Part A – Applicable to All Professional Accountants

Part B – Applicable to Professional Accountants in Public Practice

Part C – Applicable to Employed Professional Accountants


Distinguish between ‘Professional Accountants’, ‘Professional Accountants in Public Practice’ and ‘Employed

Professional Accountants’. (3 marks)

(a) Professional Accountants
■ Professional Accountants are members of an IFAC member body. They may be:
– in public practice or employed professionals;
– a sole practitioner, partnership or corporate body.
■ Professional Accountants in Public Practice (‘practitioners’) are:
– each partner (or person occupying a position similar to that of a partner); and
– each employee in a practice providing professional services to a client irrespective of their functional classification
(e.g. audit, tax or consulting); and
– professional accountants in a practice having managerial responsibilities.
This term is also used to refer to a firm of professional accountants in public practice.
■ Employed Professional Accountants are professional accountants employed in industry, commerce, the public sector or

(b) The management of Division C has identified the need to achieve cost savings in order to become more

competitive. They have decided that an analysis and investigation of quality costs into four sub-categories will

provide a focus for performance measurement and improvement.


Identify the FOUR sub-categories into which quality costs can be analysed and provide examples (which

must relate to Division C) of each of the four sub-categories of quality cost that can be investigated in order

that overall cost savings might be achieved and hence the performance improved. (8 marks)

(b) Quality costs may be monitored by measuring costs of non-conformance and costs of conformance.
Costs of non-conformance occur when the product fails to reach the design quality standards. Such costs may be subdivided
into internal failure costs and external failure costs.
Internal failure costs occur when the failure is detected before the transfer of the product to the customer.
External failure costs occur when the failure to reach the required standards is not detected until after the product has been
transferred to the customer.
Costs of conformance are those incurred in reducing or eliminating the costs of non-conformance. Such costs may be
subdivided into appraisal costs and prevention costs.
Appraisal costs are those associated with the evaluation of items such as purchased material and services in order to ensure
that they conform. to the agreed specification.
Prevention costs are those associated with the implementation of a quality improvement programme. Such costs are planned
in advance and their implementation should lead to continuous improvement.
Examples of quality costs relevant to Division C may include:
Internal failure costs: cost of materials scrapped due to poor receipt and storage procedures or losses of CC output due to poor
processing routines.
External failure costs: cost of quality problems with batch of CC not detected until it has reached Division B. This may require
free replacement of the batch and compensation for loss of output by Division B.
Appraisal costs: evaluation of purchased material and services in relation to the manufacture of CC to ensure that it conforms
to the agreed specification; e.g. inspection and testing before use.
Prevention costs: the cost of implementation of staff training and the costs of equipment testing to ensure that it conforms to
the specification standards required for the production of CC.
(Alternative relevant examples would be accepted)

2 The draft financial statements of Choctaw, a limited liability company, for the year ended 31 December 2004 showed

a profit of $86,400. The trial balance did not balance, and a suspense account with a credit balance of $3,310 was

included in the balance sheet.

In subsequent checking the following errors were found:

(a) Depreciation of motor vehicles at 25 per cent was calculated for the year ended 31 December 2004 on the

reducing balance basis, and should have been calculated on the straight-line basis at 25 per cent.

Relevant figures:

Cost of motor vehicles $120,000, net book value at 1 January 2004, $88,000

(b) Rent received from subletting part of the office accommodation $1,200 had been put into the petty cash box.

No receivable balance had been recognised when the rent fell due and no entries had been made in the petty

cash book or elsewhere for it. The petty cash float in the trial balance is the amount according to the records,

which is $1,200 less than the actual balance in the box.

(c) Bad debts totalling $8,400 are to be written off.

(d) The opening accrual on the motor repairs account of $3,400, representing repair bills due but not paid at

31 December 2003, had not been brought down at 1 January 2004.

(e) The cash discount totals for December 2004 had not been posted to the discount accounts in the nominal ledger.

The figures were:


Discount allowed 380

Discount received 290

After the necessary entries, the suspense account balanced.


Prepare journal entries, with narratives, to correct the errors found, and prepare a statement showing the

necessary adjustments to the profit.

(10 marks)


(b) Illustrate how you might use analytical procedures to provide audit evidence and reduce the level of detailed

substantive procedures. (7 marks)

(b) Illustration of use of analytical procedures as audit evidence
Tutorial note: Note that ‘as audit evidence’ requires consideration of substantive analytical procedures rather that the
identification of risks (relevant to part (a)).
Analytical procedures may be used in testing revenue for completeness of recording (‘understatement’). The average selling
price of a vehicle in 2005 was $68,830 ($526·0 million ÷ 7,642 vehicles). Applying this to the number of vehicles sold
in 2006, might be projected to generate $698·8 million ($68,830 × 10,153) revenue from the sale of vehicles. The draft
financial statements therefore show a potential shortfall of $110·8 million ($(698·8 – 588·0) million) that is, 15·6%.
This should be investigated and substantiated through more detailed analytical procedures. For example, the number of
vehicles sold should be analysed into models and multiplied by the list price of each for a more accurate estimate of potential
revenue. The impact of discounts and other incentives (e.g. 0% finance) on the list prices should then be allowed for. If
recorded revenue for 2006 (as per draft income statement adjusted for cutoff and consignment inventories) is materially lower
than that calculated, detailed substantive procedures may be required in order to show that there is no material error.
‘Proof in total’/reasonableness tests
The material correctness, or otherwise, of income statement items (in particular) may be assessed through appropriate ‘proof
in total’ calculations (or ‘reasonableness’ tests). For example:
■ Employee benefits costs: the average number of employees by category (waged/salaried/apprenticed) × the average pay
rate for each might prove that in total $91·0 million (as adjusted to actual at 31 December 2006) is not materially
misstated. The average number of employees needs to be checked substantively (e.g. recalculated based on the number
of employees on each payroll) and the average pay rates (e.g. to rates agreed with employee representatives).
Tutorial note: An alternative reasonableness might be to take last year’s actual adjusted for 2006 numbers of
employees grossed-up for any pay increases during the year (pro-rated as necessary).
■ Depreciation: the cost (or net book value) of each category of asset × by the relevant straight-line (or reducing balance)
depreciation rate. If a ‘ballpark’ calculation for the year is materially different to the annual charge a more detailed
calculation can be made using monthly depreciation calculations. The cost (or net book value) on which depreciation
is calculated should be substantively tested, for example by agreeing brought forward balances to prior year working
papers and additions to purchase invoices (costings in respect of assets under construction).
Tutorial note: Alternatively, last year’s depreciation charge may be reconciled to this year’s by considering depreciation
rates applied to brought forward balances with adjustments for additions/disposals.
■ Interest income: an average interest rate for the year can be applied to the monthly balance invested (e.g. in deposit
accounts) and compared with the amount recognised for the year to 31 December 2006 (as adjusted for any accrued
interest per the bank letter for audit purposes). The monthly balances (or averages) on which the calculation is
performed should be substantiated to bank deposit statements.
■ Interest expense: if the cash balances do not go into overdraft then this may be similar expenses (e.g. prompt payment
discounts to customers). If this is to particular dealers then a proof in total might be to apply the discount rate to the
amounts invoiced to the dealer during the period.
Immaterial items
For immaterial items analytical procedures alone may provide sufficient audit evidence that amounts in the financial
statements are not materially misstated so that detailed substantive procedures are not required. For example, a comparison
of administration and distribution, maintenance and insurance costs for 2006 compared with 2005 may be sufficient to show
that material error is highly unlikely. If necessary, further reasonableness tests could be performed. For example, considering
insurance costs to value of assets insured or maintenance costs to costs of assets maintained.
Ratio analysis
Ratio analysis can provide substantive evidence that income statement and balance sheet items are not materially misstated
by considering their inter-relationships. For example:
■ Asset turnover: Based on the draft financial statements property, plant and equipment has turned over 5·2 times
($645·5/124·5) compared with 5·9 times in 2005. This again highlights that income may be overstated, or assets
overstated (e.g. if depreciation is understated).
■ Inventory turnover: Using cost of materials adjusted for changes in inventories this has remained stable at 10·9 times.
Tutorial note: This is to be expected as in (a) the cost in the income statement has increased by 9% and the value of
inventories by 8·5%.
Inventories represent the smallest asset value on the balance sheet at 31 December 2006 (7·8% of total assets).
Therefore substantive procedures may be limited to agreeing physical count of material items (vehicles) and agreeing
■ Average collection period: This has increased to 41 days (73·1/645·5 × 365) from 30 days. Further substantive analysis
is required, for example, separating out non-current amounts (for sales on 0% finance terms). Substantive procedures
may be limited to confirmation of amounts due from dealers (and/or receipt of after-date cash) and agreeing cutoff of
goods on consignment.
■ Payment periods: This has remained constant at 37 days (2005 – 38 days). Detailed substantive procedures may be
restricted to reconciling only major suppliers’ statements and agreeing the cutoff on parts purchased from them.

Cherry Blossom Co (Cherry) manufactures custom made furniture and its year end is 30 April. The company purchases its raw materials from a wide range of suppliers. Below is a description of Cherry’s purchasing system.

When production supervisors require raw materials, they complete a requisition form. and this is submitted to the purchase ordering department. Requisition forms do not require authorisation and no reference is made to the current inventory levels of the materials being requested. Staff in the purchase ordering department use the requisitions to raise sequentially numbered purchase orders based on the approved suppliers list, which was last updated 24 months ago. The purchasing director authorises the orders prior to these being sent to the suppliers.

When the goods are received, the warehouse department verifies the quantity to the suppliers despatch note and checks that the quality of the goods received are satisfactory. They complete a sequentially numbered goods received note (GRN) and send a copy of the GRN to the finance department.

Purchase invoices are sent directly to the purchase ledger clerk, who stores them in a manual file until the end of each week. He then inputs them into the purchase ledger using batch controls and gives each invoice a unique number based on the supplier code. The invoices are reviewed and authorised for payment by the finance director, but the actual payment is only made 60 days after the invoice is input into the system.


In respect of the purchasing system of Cherry Blossom Co:

(i) Identify and explain FIVE deficiencies; and

(ii) Recommend a control to address each of these deficiencies.

Note: The total marks will be split equally between each part.


Cherry Blossom Co’s (Cherry) purchasing system deficiencies and controls

ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第4篇

2 Alpha Division, which is part of the Delta Group, is considering an investment opportunity to which the following

estimated information relates:

(1) An initial investment of $45m in equipment at the beginning of year 1 will be depreciated on a straight-line basis

over a three-year period with a nil residual value at the end of year 3.

(2) Net operating cash inflows in each of years 1 to 3 will be $12·5m, $18·5m and $27m respectively.

(3) The management accountant of Alpha Division has estimated that the NPV of the investment would be

$1·937m using a cost of capital of 10%.

(4) A bonus scheme which is based on short-term performance evaluation is in operation in all divisions within the

Delta Group.


(a) (i) Calculate the residual income of the proposed investment and comment briefly (using ONLY the above

information) on the values obtained in reconciling the short-term and long-term decision views likely to

be adopted by divisional management regarding the viability of the proposed investment. (6 marks)



(b) Write a letter to Joanne setting out the value added tax (VAT) registration requirements and advising on

whether or not she should or could register for VAT and if registered if she could recover the VAT suffered on

the consultancy fees and computer purchased in October 2005. (7 marks)

(b) [Joanne’s address] [Firm’s address]
Dear Joanne 5 February 2006
I am writing to you in order to set out the value added tax (VAT) issues you face on registering your trade, together with some
other aspects of VAT that are relevant to you.
VAT registration is compulsory once taxable supplies exceed £58,000. This turnover figure is based on the value of your
cumulative taxable supplies in the previous 12 months. You have an obligation to inform. Customs within 30 days of the end
of the month in which the annual limit is exceeded. Registration will become effective on the first day of the following month.
VAT registration is also required if there are reasonable grounds for believing that the taxable supplies in the following 30 days
will exceed £58,000. In such cases, notification is required by the end of that 30 day period with registration being effective
from the start of that period.
Based on your estimates of taxable supplies, you will exceed the annual limit in October 2006 when your cumulative turnover
will be £62,000. You will therefore have to inform. Customs by the end of November. Your registration will be effective as of
1 December 2006.
You also have the option of voluntarily registering prior to then in which case you will normally become registered from the
date you applied. This is useful where your sales are to VAT registered customers for whom the extra VAT would not be a cost.
You would then be able to recover VAT on your attributable costs. However, you will have to comply with the VAT
administrative requirements.
Recovery of pre-registration VAT
It is possible to claim the recovery of VAT incurred prior to registering for VAT. There are some conditions, however. The costs
of the goods or services must have been incurred for the purpose of the business and there are time limits. You have three
years from the effective date of registration to recover the VAT on fixed assets (such as your computer) but only six months in
the case of purchased services (such as the consultancy fees).
As a result, I would recommend that you apply for voluntary registration as soon as possible, as registering after 1 April 2006
will mean that you will be unable to reclaim the VAT on your consultancy fees.
I hope the above information is useful to you.
Yours sincerely,
A. Consultant.

(b) Discuss the view that fair value is a more relevant measure to use in corporate reporting than historical cost.

(12 marks)

(b) The main disagreement over a shift to fair value measurement is the debate over relevance versus reliability. It is argued that
historical cost financial statements are not relevant because they do not provide information about current exchange values
for the entity’s assets which to some extent determine the value of the shares of the entity. However, the information provided
by fair values may be unreliable because it may not be based on arm’s-length transactions. Proponents of fair value
accounting argue that this measurement is more relevant to decision makers even if it is less reliable and would produce
balance sheets that are more representative of a company’s value. However it can be argued that relevant information that is
unreliable is of no use to an investor. One advantage of historical cost financial information is that it produces earnings
numbers that are not based on appraisals or other valuation techniques. Therefore, the income statement is less likely to be
subject to manipulation by management. In addition, historical cost balance sheet figures comprise actual purchase prices,
not estimates of current values that can be altered to improve various financial ratios. Because historical cost statements rely
less on estimates and more on ‘hard’ numbers, it can be said that historical cost financial statements are more reliable than
fair value financial statements. Furthermore, fair value measurements may be less reliable than historical costs measures
because fair value accounting provides management with the opportunity to manipulate the reported profit for the period.
Developing reliable methods of measuring fair value so that investors trust the information reported in financial statements is
Fair value measurement could be said to be more relevant than historical cost as it is based on market values and not entity
specific measurement on initial recognition, so long as fair values can be reliably measured. Generally the fair value of the
consideration given or received (effectively historical cost) also represents the fair value of the item at the date of initial
recognition. However there are many cases where significant differences between historical cost and fair value can arise on
initial recognition.
Historical cost does not purport to measure the value received. It cannot be assumed that the price paid can be recovered in
the market place. Hence the need for some additional measure of recoverable value and impairment testing of assets.
Historical cost can be an entity specific measurement. The recorded historical cost can be lower or higher than its fair value.
For example the valuation of inventory is determined by the costing method adopted by the entity and this can vary from
entity to entity. Historical cost often requires the allocation of costs to an asset or liability. These costs are attributed to assets,
liabilities and expenses, and are often allocated arbitrarily. An example of this is self constructed assets. Rules set out in
accounting standards help produce some consistency of historical cost measurements but such rules cannot improve
representational faithfulness.
Another problem with historical cost arises as regards costs incurred prior to an asset being recognised. Historical costs
recorded from development expenditure cannot be capitalised if they are incurred prior to the asset meeting the recognition
criteria in IAS38 ‘Intangible Assets’. Thus the historical cost amount does not represent the fair value of the consideration
given to create the asset.
The relevance of historical cost has traditionally been based on a cost/revenue matching principle. The objective has been to
expense the cost of the asset when the revenue to which the asset has contributed is recognised. If the historical cost of the
asset differs from its fair value on initial recognition then the matching process in future periods becomes arbitrary. The
measurement of assets at fair value will enhance the matching objective. Historical cost may have use in predicting future
net reported income but does not have any necessary implications for future cash flows. Fair value does embody the market’s
expectations for those future cash flows.
However, historical cost is grounded in actual transaction amounts and has existed for many years to the extent that it is
supported by practical experience and familiarity. Historical cost is accepted as a reliable measure especially where no other
relevant measurement basis can be applied.

(ii) State when the inheritance tax (IHT) calculated in (i) would be payable and by whom. (2 marks)

(ii) Inheritance tax administration
The tax on Debbie’s estate (personalty and realty) would be paid by the personal representatives, usually an executor.
Inheritance tax is due six months from the end of the month in which death occurred (31 December 2005) or the date
on which probate is obtained (if earlier). However, an instalment option is available for certain assets, which includes
land and buildings i.e. the residence whereby the tax can be paid in 10 equal annual instalments.

(b) Calculate the corporation tax (CT) liabilities for Alantech Ltd, Boron Ltd and Bubble Ltd for the year ending

31 December 2004 on the assumption that loss reliefs are taken as early as possible. (9 marks)


(b) Schedule D Case I calculation
The three companies form. a group for both group relief and capital gains purposes as all shareholdings pass the 75%
ownership test. The calculation of the corporation tax liabilities is as follows:

5 You are an audit manager in Bartolome, a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants. You have specific responsibility

for undertaking annual reviews of existing clients and advising whether an engagement can be properly continued.

The following matters have arisen in connection with recent assignments:

(a) Leon Dormido is the senior in charge of the audit of the financial statements of Moreno, a limited liability

company, for the year ending 30 June 2005. Moreno’s Chief Executive Officer, James Bay, has just sent you an

e-mail to advise you that Leon has been short-listed for the position of Finance Director. You were not previously

aware that Leon had applied for the position. (5 marks)


Comment on the ethical and other professional issues raised by each of the above matters and their implications,

if any, for the continuation of each assignment.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

(a) Senior audit staff leaving for employment with client
Ethical and professional issues
■ Leon’s independence is in doubt as he is threatened by self-interest. Leon’s objectivity in relation to the audit may be
influenced by a desire to please and impress Moreno, as a prospective employer.
■ There appears to be a lack of integrity on the part of James and/or Leon:
? Leon should have confided in an appropriately senior manager/partner of Bartolome. In not doing so he has
compromised the firm by having applied for a position with a client whilst assigned to the client.
? James may lack integrity in having advised Bartolome of the short-listing if he gave an undertaking to Leon not to
do so. (Conversely, James may be acting with integrity in advising Bartolome and as a matter of professional
■ Leon should be removed from the audit assignment immediately regardless of whether or not he is finally appointed by
■ Leon should be given an oral warning (assuming this to be a first offence) for failing to adhere to Bartolome’s quality
control policies and procedures (requiring disclosure to the firm of any threat of involvement with an audit client).
■ The working papers for all interim audit work relating to Moreno performed under the supervision of Leon should be
reviewed as soon as possible, before the balance sheet date (at the end of the month).
Implications for continuation with assignment
The assignment can be properly continued with a new senior in charge of the audit of the financial statements for the year
ending 30 June 2005. Any planning of the year end and final audit work by Leon should be reviewed, amended as necessary
and approved before any further work is undertaken.

1 Stuart is a self-employed business consultant aged 58. He is married to Rebecca, aged 55. They have one child,

Sam, who is aged 24 and single.

In November 2005 Stuart sold a house in Plymouth for £422,100. Stuart had inherited the house on the death of

his mother on 1 May 1994 when it had a probate value of £185,000. The subsequent pattern of occupation was as


1 May 1994 to 28 February 1995 occupied by Stuart and Rebecca as main residence

1 March 1995 to 31 December 1998 unoccupied

1 January 1999 to 31 March 2001 let out (unfurnished)

1 April 2001 to 30 November 2001 occupied by Stuart and Rebecca

1 December 2001 to 30 November 2005 used occasionally as second home

Both Stuart and Rebecca had lived in London from March 1995 onwards. On 1 March 2001 Stuart and Rebecca

bought a house in London in their joint names. On 1 January 2002 they elected for their London house to be their

principal private residence with effect from that date, up until that point the Plymouth property had been their principal

private residence.

No other capital disposals were made by Stuart in the tax year 2005/06. He has £29,500 of capital losses brought

forward from previous years.

Stuart intends to invest the gross sale proceeds from the sale of the Plymouth house, and is considering two

investment options, both of which he believes will provide equal risk and returns. These are as follows:

(1) acquiring shares in Omikron plc; or

(2) acquiring further shares in Omega plc.


1. Omikron plc is a listed UK trading company, with 50,250,000 shares in issue. Its shares currently trade at 42p

per share.

2. Stuart and Rebecca helped start up the company, which was then Omega Ltd. The company was formed on

1 June 1990, when they each bought 24,000 shares for £1 per share. The company became listed on 1 May

1997. On this date their holding was subdivided, with each of them receiving 100 shares in Omega plc for each

share held in Omega Ltd. The issued share capital of Omega plc is currently 10,000,000 shares. The share price

is quoted at 208p – 216p with marked bargains at 207p, 211p, and 215p.

Stuart and Rebecca’s assets (following the sale of the Plymouth house but before any investment of the proceeds) are

as follows:

Assets Stuart Rebecca

£ £

Family house in London 450,000 450,000

Cash from property sale 422,100 –

Cash deposits 165,000 165,000

Portfolio of quoted investments – 250,000

Shares in Omega plc see above see above

Life insurance policy note 1 note 1


1. The life insurance policy will pay out a sum of £200,000 on the death of the first spouse to die.

Stuart has recently been diagnosed with a serious illness. He is expected to live for another two or three years only.

He is concerned about the possible inheritance tax that will arise on his death. Both he and Rebecca have wills whose

terms transfer all assets to the surviving spouse. Rebecca is in good health.

Neither Stuart nor Rebecca has made any previous chargeable lifetime transfers for the purposes of inheritance tax.


(a) Calculate the taxable capital gain on the sale of the Plymouth house in November 2005 (9 marks)



Note that the last 36 months count as deemed occupation, as the house was Stuart’s principal private residence (PPR)
at some point during his period of ownership.
The first 36 months of the period from 1 March 1995 to 31 March 2001 qualifies as a deemed occupation period as
Stuart and Rebecca returned to occupy the property on 1 April 2001. The remainder of the period will be treated as a
period of absence, although letting relief is available for part of the period (see below).
The exempt element of the gain is the proportion during which the property was occupied, real or deemed. This is
£138,665 (90/139 x £214,160).
(2) The chargeable gain is restricted for the period that the property was let out. This is restricted to the lowest of the
(i) the gain attributable to the letting period (27/139 x 214,160) = £41,599
(ii) £40,000
(iii) the total exempt PPR gain = £138,665
i.e. £40,000.
(3) The taper relief is effectively wasted, having restricted losses b/f to preserve the annual exemption.

James died on 22 January 2015. He had made the following gifts during his lifetime:

(1) On 9 October 2007, a cash gift of £35,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift.

(2) On 14 May 2013, a cash gift of £420,000 to his daughter.

(3) On 2 August 2013, a gift of a property valued at £260,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift because it was covered by the nil rate band. By the time of James’ death on 22 January 2015, the property had increased in value to £310,000.

On 22 January 2015, James’ estate was valued at £870,000. Under the terms of his will, James left his entire estate to his children.

The nil rate band of James’ wife was fully utilised when she died ten years ago.

The nil rate band for the tax year 2007–08 is £300,000, and for the tax year 2013–14 it is £325,000.


(a) Calculate the inheritance tax which will be payable as a result of James’ death, and state who will be responsible for paying the tax. (6 marks)

(b) Explain why it might have been beneficial for inheritance tax purposes if James had left a portion of his estate to his grandchildren rather than to his children. (2 marks)

(c) Explain why it might be advantageous for inheritance tax purposes for a person to make lifetime gifts even when such gifts are made within seven years of death.


1. Your answer should include a calculation of James’ inheritance tax saving from making the gift of property to the trust on 2 August 2013 rather than retaining the property until his death.

2. You are not expected to consider lifetime exemptions in this part of the question. (2 marks)


(a) James – Inheritance tax arising on death

Lifetime transfers within seven years of death

The personal representatives of James’ estate will be responsible for paying the inheritance tax of £348,000.

Working – Available nil rate band

(b) Skipping a generation avoids a further charge to inheritance tax when the children die. Gifts will then only be taxed once before being inherited by the grandchildren, rather than twice.

(c) (1) Even if the donor does not survive for seven years, taper relief will reduce the amount of IHT payable after three years.

(2) The value of potentially exempt transfers and chargeable lifetime transfers are fixed at the time they are made.

(3) James therefore saved inheritance tax of £20,000 ((310,000 – 260,000) at 40%) by making the lifetime gift of property.

ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第5篇

(b) Motivators. (7 marks)

(b) Motivators (or ‘satisfiers’) are those factors directly concerned with the satisfaction gained from the job itself. Herzberg
suggested that these included a sense of achievement, the level of recognition of the employee, the intrinsic value felt at the
job itself, level of responsibility, opportunities for advancement and the status both inside and outside provided by the job or
position held.
Motivators lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and a sense of self achievement
A lack of motivators leads to over concentration on hygiene factors; that is those negative factors which can be seen and
therefore form. the basis of complaint and concern.

4 Hogg Products Company (HPC), based in a developing country, was recently wholly acquired by American Overseas

Investments (AOI), a North American holding company. The new owners took the opportunity to completely review

HPC’s management, culture and systems. One of the first things that AOI questioned was HPC’s longstanding

corporate code of ethics.

The board of AOI said that it had a general code of ethics that HPC, as an AOI subsidiary, should adopt. Simon Hogg,

the chief executive of HPC, disagreed however, and explained why HPC should retain its existing code. He said that

HPC had adopted its code of ethics in its home country which was often criticised for its unethical business behaviour.

Some other companies in the country were criticised for their ‘sweat shop’ conditions. HPC’s adoption of its code of

ethics, however, meant that it could always obtain orders from European customers on the guarantee that products

were made ethically and in compliance with its own highly regarded code of ethics. Mr Hogg explained that HPC had

an outstanding ethical reputation both locally and internationally and that reputation could be threatened if it was

forced to replace its existing code of ethics with AOI’s more general code.

When Ed Tanner, a senior director from AOI’s head office, visited Mr Hogg after the acquisition, he was shown HPC’s

operation in action. Mr Hogg pointed out that unlike some other employers in the industry, HPC didn’t employ child

labour. Mr Hogg explained that although it was allowed by law in the country, it was forbidden by HPC’s code of

ethics. Mr Hogg also explained that in his view, employing child labour was always ethically wrong. Mr Tanner asked

whether the money that children earned by working in the relatively safe conditions at HPC was an important source

of income for their families. Mr Hogg said that the money was important to them but even so, it was still wrong to

employ children, as it was exploitative and interfered with their education. He also said that it would alienate the

European customers who bought from HPC partly on the basis of the terms of its code of ethics.


(a) Describe the purposes and typical contents of a corporate code of ethics. (9 marks)

(a) Purposes of codes of ethics
To convey the ethical values of the company to interested audiences including employees, customers, communities and
To control unethical practice within the organisation by placing limits on behaviour and prescribing behaviour in given
To be a stimulant to improved ethical behaviour in the organisation by insisting on full compliance with the code.
[Tutorial note: other purposes, if relevant, will be rewarded]
Contents of a corporate code of ethics
The typical contents of a corporate code of ethics are as follows:
Values of the company. This might include notes on the strategic purpose of the organisation and any underlying beliefs,
values, assumptions or principles. Values may be expressed in terms of social and environmental perspectives, and
expressions of intent regarding compliance with best practice, etc.
Shareholders and suppliers of finance. In particular, how the company views the importance of sources of finances, how it
intends to communicate with them and any indications of how they will be treated in terms of transparency, truthfulness and
Employees. Policies towards employees, which might include equal opportunities policies, training and development,
recruitment, retention and removal of staff. In the case of HPC, the policy on child labour will be covered by this part of the
code of ethics.
Customers. How the company intends to treat its customers, typically in terms of policy of customer satisfaction, product mix,
product quality, product information and complaints procedure.
Supply chain/suppliers. This is becoming an increasingly important part of ethical behaviour as stakeholders scrutinise where
and how companies source their products (e.g. farming practice, GM foods, fair trade issues, etc). Ethical policy on supply
chain might include undertakings to buy from certain approved suppliers only, to buy only above a certain level of quality, to
engage constructively with suppliers (e.g. for product development purposes) or not to buy from suppliers who do not meet
with their own ethical standards.
Community and wider society. This section concerns the manner in which the company aims to relate to a range of
stakeholders with whom it does not have a direct economic relationship (e.g. neighbours, opinion formers, pressure groups,
etc). It might include undertakings on consultation, ‘listening’, seeking consent, partnership arrangements (e.g. in community
relationships with local schools) and similar.
[Tutorial note: up to six points to be identified and described but similar valid general contents are acceptable]

(b) Explain THREE problems in undertaking a performance comparison of GBC and TTC and also explain THREE

items of additional information that would be of assistance in assessing the operating and financial

performance of GBC and TTC. (6 marks)

(b) The relative performance of GBC and TTC is difficult to assess due to the following:
(i) They would appear to have differing objectives. GBC provides free transport for senior citizens and charges lower fares
than TTC. GBC also uses environmentally friendly fuel. Each of these factors inhibits a direct comparison of the two
(ii) The organisations are funded differently. It is evident that TTC uses loan finance to fund operations which gives rise to
interest charges which are not incurred by GBC. On the other hand GBC is funded by the government.
(iii) TTC has higher fixed asset values which precipitate much higher depreciation charges.
(iv) There is also a lack of non-financial performance indicators such as the number of on-time arrivals, number of accidents,
complaints re passenger dissatisfaction, staff turnover, adherence to relevant legislation, convenience of pick-up/drop-off
points etc.
The following items of additional information would assist in assessing the financial and operating performance of the two
(1) The number of staff employed by each organisation would assist in the assessment of the financial and operating
performance. Ratios such as revenue generated per employee and operating costs per employee might provide useful
comparators of financial and operating efficiency.
(2) Safety and accident records of each organisation would give an indication of the reliability and safety afforded to
passengers by each organisation. Passenger safety is of paramount importance to all passenger transport businesses.
(3) Records of late/cancelled buses together with the number of complaints received from the passengers would provide an
indication of the efficiency of the service provided by each organisation.
(4) The accessibility of the services, location of pick-up/drop-off points would provide an indication of the flexibility of service
delivery provided by each organisation.
(5) The comfort, cleanliness and age of the respective bus fleets would provide a further indication of the level of service
quality provided by each organisation.
(6) The fuel emission levels of the buses operated by each organisation would provide an indication of the extent of their
‘social responsibility’.
Notes: (i) Only three items of additional information were required.
(ii) Alternative relevant discussion and examples would be acceptable.

(b) The chief executive of Xalam Co, an exporter of specialist equipment, has asked for advice on the accounting

treatment and disclosure of payments made for security consultancy services. The payments, which aim to

ensure that consignments are not impounded in the destination country of a major customer, may be material to

the financial statements for the year ending 30 June 2006. Xalam does not treat these payments as tax

deductible. (4 marks)


Identify and comment on the ethical and other professional issues raised by each of these matters and state what

action, if any, Dedza should now take.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three situations.

(b) Advice on payments
■ As compared with (a) there is no obvious tax issue. Xalam is not overstating expenditure for tax purposes.
■ The payments being made for security consultancy services amount to a bribe. Corruption and bribery (and extortion)
are designated categories of money laundering offence under ‘The Forty Recommendations’ of the Financial Action Task
Force on Money Laundering (FATF).
■ Xalam clearly benefits from the payments as it receives income from the contract with the major customer. This is
criminal property and possession of it is a money laundering offence.
■ Dedza should consider the seriousness of the disclosure made by the chief executive in the context of domestic law.
■ Dedza should consider its knowledge of import duties etc in the destination country before recommending a course of
action to Xalam.
■ Dedza may be guilty of a money laundering offence if the matter is not reported. If a report to the FIU is considered
necessary then Dedza should encourage Xalam to make voluntary disclosure. If Xalam does not, Dedza will not be in
breach of client confidentiality for reporting knowledge of a suspicious transaction.
Tutorial note: Making a report takes precedence over client confidentiality.

(c) Critically discuss FOUR principal roles of non-executive directors and explain the potential tensions between

these roles that WM’s non-executive directors may experience in advising on the disclosure of the

overestimation of the mallerite reserve. (12 marks)

(c) Non-executive directors
Roles of NEDs
Non-executive directors have four principal roles.
The strategy role recognises that NEDs are full members of the board and thus have the right and responsibility to contribute
to the strategic success of the organisation for the benefit of shareholders. The enterprise must have a clear strategic direction
and NEDs should be able to bring considerable experience from their lives and business experience to bear on ensuring that
chosen strategies are sound. In this role they may challenge any aspect of strategy they see fit and offer advice or input to
help to develop successful strategy.
In the scrutinising or performance role, NEDs are required to hold executive colleagues to account for decisions taken and
company performance. In this respect they are required to represent the shareholders’ interests against the possibility that
agency issues arise to reduce shareholder value.
The risk role involves NEDs ensuring the company has an adequate system of internal controls and systems of risk
management in place. This is often informed by prescribed codes (such as Turnbull in the UK) but some industries, such as
chemicals, have other systems in place, some of which fall under ISO standards. In this role, NEDs should satisfy themselves
on the integrity of financial information and that financial controls and systems of risk management are robust and defensible.
Finally, the ‘people’ role involves NEDs overseeing a range of responsibilities with regard to the management of the executive
members of the board. This typically involves issues on appointments and remuneration, but might also involve contractual
or disciplinary issues and succession planning.
Tutorial note: these four roles are as described in the UK Higgs Report and are also contained in the Combined Code 2003.
Tensions in NED roles in the case
This refers to a potential tension in the loyalties of the NEDs. Although the NED is accountable, through the chairman to the
shareholders and thus must always act in the economic best interests of the shareholders, he or she is also a part of the board
of the company and they may, in some situations, advise discretion. Withholding information might be judged correct because
of strategic considerations or longer-term shareholder interests. In most situations, NEDs will argue for greater transparency,
less concealment and more clarity of how and why a given action will be in the interests of shareholders.
The case of mallerite overestimation places the WM NEDs in a position of some tension. Any instinct to conceal the full extent
of the overestimate of the reserve for the possible protection of the company’s short-term value must be balanced against the
duty to serve longer-term strategic interests and the public interest. Whilst concealment would protect the company’s
reputation and share price in the short term, it would be a duty of the NEDs to point out that WM should observe transparency
as far as possible in its dealing with the shareholders and other capital market participants.

(ii) Briefly discuss THREE disadvantages of using EVA? in the measurement of financial performance.

(3 marks)

(ii) Disadvantages of an EVA approach to the measurement of financial performance include:
(i) The calculation of EVA may be complicated due to the number of adjustments required.
(ii) It is difficult to use EVA for inter-firm and inter-divisional comparisons because it is not a ratio measure.
(iii) Economic depreciation is difficult to estimate and conflicts with generally accepted accounting principles.
Note: Other relevant discussion would be acceptable.

(b) Discuss the view that fair value is a more relevant measure to use in corporate reporting than historical cost.

(12 marks)

(b) The main disagreement over a shift to fair value measurement is the debate over relevance versus reliability. It is argued that
historical cost financial statements are not relevant because they do not provide information about current exchange values
for the entity’s assets which to some extent determine the value of the shares of the entity. However, the information provided
by fair values may be unreliable because it may not be based on arm’s-length transactions. Proponents of fair value
accounting argue that this measurement is more relevant to decision makers even if it is less reliable and would produce
balance sheets that are more representative of a company’s value. However it can be argued that relevant information that is
unreliable is of no use to an investor. One advantage of historical cost financial information is that it produces earnings
numbers that are not based on appraisals or other valuation techniques. Therefore, the income statement is less likely to be
subject to manipulation by management. In addition, historical cost balance sheet figures comprise actual purchase prices,
not estimates of current values that can be altered to improve various financial ratios. Because historical cost statements rely
less on estimates and more on ‘hard’ numbers, it can be said that historical cost financial statements are more reliable than
fair value financial statements. Furthermore, fair value measurements may be less reliable than historical costs measures
because fair value accounting provides management with the opportunity to manipulate the reported profit for the period.
Developing reliable methods of measuring fair value so that investors trust the information reported in financial statements is
Fair value measurement could be said to be more relevant than historical cost as it is based on market values and not entity
specific measurement on initial recognition, so long as fair values can be reliably measured. Generally the fair value of the
consideration given or received (effectively historical cost) also represents the fair value of the item at the date of initial
recognition. However there are many cases where significant differences between historical cost and fair value can arise on
initial recognition.
Historical cost does not purport to measure the value received. It cannot be assumed that the price paid can be recovered in
the market place. Hence the need for some additional measure of recoverable value and impairment testing of assets.
Historical cost can be an entity specific measurement. The recorded historical cost can be lower or higher than its fair value.
For example the valuation of inventory is determined by the costing method adopted by the entity and this can vary from
entity to entity. Historical cost often requires the allocation of costs to an asset or liability. These costs are attributed to assets,
liabilities and expenses, and are often allocated arbitrarily. An example of this is self constructed assets. Rules set out in
accounting standards help produce some consistency of historical cost measurements but such rules cannot improve
representational faithfulness.
Another problem with historical cost arises as regards costs incurred prior to an asset being recognised. Historical costs
recorded from development expenditure cannot be capitalised if they are incurred prior to the asset meeting the recognition
criteria in IAS38 ‘Intangible Assets’. Thus the historical cost amount does not represent the fair value of the consideration
given to create the asset.
The relevance of historical cost has traditionally been based on a cost/revenue matching principle. The objective has been to
expense the cost of the asset when the revenue to which the asset has contributed is recognised. If the historical cost of the
asset differs from its fair value on initial recognition then the matching process in future periods becomes arbitrary. The
measurement of assets at fair value will enhance the matching objective. Historical cost may have use in predicting future
net reported income but does not have any necessary implications for future cash flows. Fair value does embody the market’s
expectations for those future cash flows.
However, historical cost is grounded in actual transaction amounts and has existed for many years to the extent that it is
supported by practical experience and familiarity. Historical cost is accepted as a reliable measure especially where no other
relevant measurement basis can be applied.

6 The explosive growth of investing and raising capital in the global markets has put new emphasis on the development

of international accounting, auditing and ethical standards. The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) has

been at the forefront of the development of the worldwide accountancy profession through its activities in ethics,

auditing and education.


Explain the developments in each of the following areas and indicate how they affect Chartered Certified


(a) IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’; (5 marks)

Tutorial note: The answer which follows is indicative of the range of points which might be made. Other relevant material will
be given suitable credit.
(a) IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’
Since its issue in 1996, IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’ (‘The Code’) has undergone several revisions
(1996, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2005). IFAC holds the view that due to national differences (of culture, language, legal and
social systems) the task of preparing detailed ethical requirements is primarily that of the member bodies in each country
concerned (and that they also have the responsibility to implement and enforce such requirements).
In recognizing the responsibilities of the accountancy profession, IFAC considers its own role to be in providing guidance and
promoting harmonization. IFAC has established ‘The Code’ to provide a basis on which the ethical requirements for
professional accountants in each country should be founded.
IFAC’s conceptual approach is principles-based. It provides a route to convergence that emphasises the profession’s integrity.
This approach may be summarised as:
■ identifying and evaluating circumstances and relationships that create threats (e.g. to independence); and
■ taking appropriate action to:
– eliminate these threats; or
– reduce them to an acceptable level by the application of safeguards.
If no safeguards are available to reduce a threat to an acceptable level an assurance engagement must be refused or
This approach was first introduced to Section 8 of The Code, on independence, and is applicable to assurance engagements
when the assurance report is dated on or after 31 December 2004.
Further to the cases of Enron, Worldcom and Parmalat, IFAC issued a revised Code in July 2005 that applies to all professional
accountants, whether in public practice, business, industry or government2.
A member body of IFAC may not apply less stringent standards than those stated in the Code. The Code is effective from
30 June 2006.
Practicing accountants and members in business must maintain the high standards of professional ethics that are expected
by their professional bodies (such as ACCA). These developments codify current best practice in the wake of the
aforementioned recent corporate scandals.
The developments in The Code have wider application in that it:
■ applies to all assurance services (not just audit);
■ considers the standpoints of the firm and of the assurance team.
Since ACCA is a member-body of IFAC the elevation of The Code to a standard will affect all Chartered Certified Accountants.

ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第6篇

2 Your firm was appointed as auditor to Indigo Co, an iron and steel corporation, in September 2005. You are the

manager in charge of the audit of the financial statements of Indigo, for the year ending 31 December 2005.

Indigo owns office buildings, a workshop and a substantial stockyard on land that was leased in 1995 for 25 years.

Day-to-day operations are managed by the chief accountant, purchasing manager and workshop supervisor who

report to the managing director.

All iron, steel and other metals are purchased for cash at ‘scrap’ prices determined by the purchasing manager. Scrap

metal is mostly high volume. A weighbridge at the entrance to the stockyard weighs trucks and vans before and after

the scrap metals that they carry are unloaded into the stockyard.

Two furnaces in the workshop melt down the salvageable scrap metal into blocks the size of small bricks that are then

stored in the workshop. These are sold on both credit and cash terms. The furnaces are now 10 years old and have

an estimated useful life of a further 15 years. However, the furnace linings are replaced every four years. An annual

provision is made for 25% of the estimated cost of the next relining. A by-product of the operation of the furnaces is

the production of ‘clinker’. Most of this is sold, for cash, for road surfacing but some is illegally dumped.

Indigo’s operations are subsidised by the local authority as their existence encourages recycling and means that there

is less dumping of metal items. Indigo receives a subsidy calculated at 15% of the market value of metals purchased,

as declared in a quarterly return. The return for the quarter to 31 December 2005 is due to be submitted on

21 January 2006.

Indigo maintains manual inventory records by metal and estimated quality. Indigo counted inventory at 30 November

2005 with the intention of ‘rolling-forward’ the purchasing manager’s valuation as at that date to the year-end

quantities per the manual records. However, you were not aware of this until you visited Indigo yesterday to plan

your year-end procedures.

During yesterday’s tour of Indigo’s premises you saw that:

(i) sheets of aluminium were strewn across fields adjacent to the stockyard after a storm blew them away;

(ii) much of the vast quantity of iron piled up in the stockyard is rusty;

(iii) piles of copper and brass, that can be distinguished with a simple acid test, have been mixed up.

The count sheets show that metal quantities have increased, on average, by a third since last year; the quantity of

aluminium, however, is shown to be three times more. There is no suitably qualified metallurgical expert to value

inventory in the region in which Indigo operates.

The chief accountant disappeared on 1 December, taking the cash book and cash from three days’ sales with him.

The cash book was last posted to the general ledger as at 31 October 2005. The managing director has made an

allegation of fraud against the chief accountant to the police.

The auditor’s report on the financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2004 was unmodified.


(a) Describe the principal audit procedures to be carried out on the opening balances of the financial statements

of Indigo Co for the year ending 31 December 2005. (6 marks)

(a) Opening balances – principal audit procedures
Tutorial note: ‘Opening balances’ means those account balances which exist at the beginning of the period. The question
clearly states that the prior year auditor’s report was unmodified therefore any digression into the prior period opinion being
other than unmodified or the prior period not having been audited will not earn marks.
■ Review of the application of appropriate accounting policies in the financial statements for the year ended 31 December
2004 to ensure consistent with those applied in 2005.
■ Where permitted (e.g. if there is a reciprocal arrangement with the predecessor auditor to share audit working papers
on a change of appointment), a review of the prior period audit working papers.
Tutorial note: There is no legal, ethical or other professional duty that requires a predecessor auditor to make available
its working papers.
■ Current period audit procedures that provide evidence concerning the existence, measurement and completeness of
rights and obligations. For example:
? after-date receipts (in January 2005 and later) confirming the recoverable amount of trade receivables at
31 December 2004;
? similarly, after-date payments confirming the completeness of trade and other payables (for services);
? after-date sales of inventory held at 31 December 2004;
? review of January 2005 bank reconciliation (confirming clearance of reconciling items at 31 December 2004).
■ Analytical procedures on ratios calculated month-on-month from 31 December 2004 to date and further investigation
of any distortions identified at the beginning of the current reporting period. For example:
? inventory turnover (by category of metal);
? average collection payment;
? average payment period;
? gross profit percentage (by metal).
■ Examination of historic accounting records for non-current assets and liabilities (if necessary). For example:
? agreeing balances on asset registers to the client’s trial balance as at 31 December 2004;
? agreeing statements of balances on loan accounts to the financial statements as at 31 December 2004.
■ If the above procedures do not provide sufficient evidence, additional substantive procedures should be performed. For
example, if additional evidence is required concerning inventory at 31 December 2004, cut-off tests may be

3 Mark Howe, Managing Director of Auto Direct, is a victim of his own success. Mark has created an innovative way

of selling cars to the public which takes advantage of the greater freedom given to independent car distributors to

market cars more aggressively within the European Union. This reduces the traditional control and interference of the

automobile manufacturers, some of whom own their distributors. He has opened a number of showrooms in the

London region and by 2004 Auto Direct had 20 outlets in and around London. The concept is deceptively simple;

Mark buys cars from wherever he can source them most cheaply and has access to all of the leading volume car

models. He then concentrates on selling the cars to the public, leaving servicing and repair work to other specialist

garages. He offers a classic high volume/low margin business model.

Mark now wants to develop this business model onto a national and eventually an international basis. His immediate

plans are to grow the number of outlets by 50% each year for the next three years. Such growth will place

considerable strain on the existing organisation and staff. Each showroom has its own management team, sales

personnel and administration. Currently the 20 showrooms are grouped into a Northern and Southern Sales Division

with a small head office team for each division. Auto Direct now employs 250 people.

Mark now needs to communicate the next three-year phase of the company’s ambitious growth plans to staff and is

anxious to get an understanding of staff attitudes towards the company and its growth plans. He is aware that you

are a consultant used to advising firms on the changes associated with rapid growth and the way to generate positive

staff attitudes to change.


(a) Using appropriate strategies for managing change provide Mark with a brief report on how he can best create

a positive staff response to the proposed growth plans. (12 marks)

(a) To: Mark Howe – Managing Director, Auto Direct
Strategies to manage growth
Successfully convincing others in the firm of the need for, and nature of change is sometimes referred to as internal marketing
and in many ways when substantial change is involved may be just as vital as external marketing aimed at the customer.
Classic strategies for managing include participation, education/communication, power/coercion, manipulation and
negotiation. The preferred strategy, or combination of strategies, will be influenced by leadership style. and where on the
continuum from autocratic through to democratic the management style. rests. Participation in the change process sounds an
ideal strategy but may delay implementation of the change, require high trust levels between management and staff and
encounter resistance to proposed change. Education and communication is often argued to be a strategy used in conjunction
with another strategy. Interestingly, many studies point to communication being the key weakness when change is being
implemented. Clearly there are many choices as to how to educate and communicate and choosing the right strategy for the
right situation is by no means easy. The level of change at Auto Direct may be seen as a quantum change in that it affects
all parts of the organisation and you should be aware of the complex linkages between these parts. Power/coercion may be
needed if the change planned needs to be implemented quickly as in crisis situations, when the survival of the organisation
may be at stake. Such an approach may alienate the staff and have a number of unanticipated and unfortunate
consequences. Manipulation, as its name implies, may have many negative consequences and reflects the power of the
management to implement change. Finally, negotiation is a traditional way of seeking to resolve differences between different
groups, each with its own goals and objectives. Again issues of time, trust and resistance may affect the effectiveness of this
Many other change management models are available to help you overcome resistance to change including Lewin’s threestep
change and force field analysis and the Gemini 4Rs framework. The Gemini model aims at the sort of transformation
required by the scope and pace of the proposed growth strategy, where the reframing step communicates the vision, the need
for involvement and measures of successful change and the renewal step aligns the individual’s skills and competences withthe organisation’s needs in order to implement the change strategy.
I trust this overview of strategies for managing change is helpful.

The following information is available for a manufacturing company which produces multiple products:

(i) The product mix ratio

(ii) Contribution to sales ratio for each product

(iii) General fixed costs

(iv) Method of apportioning general fixed costs

Which of the above are required in order to calculate the break-even sales revenue for the company?

A.All of the above

B.(i), (ii) and (iii) only

C.(i), (iii) and (iv) only

D.(ii) and (iii) only


The method of apportioning general fixed costs is not required to calculate the break-even sales revenue.

On 1 April 2009 Pandar purchased 80% of the equity shares in Salva. The acquisition was through a share exchange of three shares in Pandar for every five shares in Salva. The market prices of Pandar’s and Salva’s shares at 1 April

2009 were $6 per share and $3.20 respectively.

On the same date Pandar acquired 40% of the equity shares in Ambra paying $2 per share.

The summarised income statements for the three companies for the year ended 30 September 2009 are:

The following information is relevant:

(i) The fair values of the net assets of Salva at the date of acquisition were equal to their carrying amounts with the exception of an item of plant which had a carrying amount of $12 million and a fair value of $17 million. This plant had a remaining life of five years (straight-line depreciation) at the date of acquisition of Salva. All depreciation is charged to cost of sales.

In addition Salva owns the registration of a popular internet domain name. The registration, which had a

negligible cost, has a five year remaining life (at the date of acquisition); however, it is renewable indefinitely at a nominal cost. At the date of acquisition the domain name was valued by a specialist company at $20 million.

The fair values of the plant and the domain name have not been reflected in Salva’s financial statements.

No fair value adjustments were required on the acquisition of the investment in Ambra.

(ii) Immediately after its acquisition of Salva, Pandar invested $50 million in an 8% loan note from Salva. All interest accruing to 30 September 2009 had been accounted for by both companies. Salva also has other loans in issue at 30 September 2009.

(iii) Pandar has credited the whole of the dividend it received from Salva to investment income.

(iv) After the acquisition, Pandar sold goods to Salva for $15 million on which Pandar made a gross profit of 20%. Salva had one third of these goods still in its inventory at 30 September 2009. There are no intra-group current account balances at 30 September 2009.

(v) The non-controlling interest in Salva is to be valued at its (full) fair value at the date of acquisition. For this

purpose Salva’s share price at that date can be taken to be indicative of the fair value of the shareholding of the non-controlling interest.

(vi) The goodwill of Salva has not suffered any impairment; however, due to its losses, the value of Pandar’s

investment in Ambra has been impaired by $3 million at 30 September 2009.

(vii) All items in the above income statements are deemed to accrue evenly over the year unless otherwise indicated.


(a) (i) Calculate the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Salva at 1 April 2009; (6 marks)

(ii) Calculate the carrying amount of the investment in Ambra to be included within the consolidated

statement of financial position as at 30 September 2009. (3 marks)

(b) Prepare the consolidated income statement for the Pandar Group for the year ended 30 September 2009.(16 marks)


(d) Sirus raised a loan with a bank of $2 million on 1 May 2007. The market interest rate of 8% per annum is to

be paid annually in arrears and the principal is to be repaid in 10 years time. The terms of the loan allow Sirus

to redeem the loan after seven years by paying the full amount of the interest to be charged over the ten year

period, plus a penalty of $200,000 and the principal of $2 million. The effective interest rate of the repayment

option is 9·1%. The directors of Sirus are currently restructuring the funding of the company and are in initial

discussions with the bank about the possibility of repaying the loan within the next financial year. Sirus is

uncertain about the accounting treatment for the current loan agreement and whether the loan can be shown as

a current liability because of the discussions with the bank. (6 marks)

Appropriateness of the format and presentation of the report and quality of discussion (2 marks)


Draft a report to the directors of Sirus which discusses the principles and nature of the accounting treatment of

the above elements under International Financial Reporting Standards in the financial statements for the year

ended 30 April 2008.

(d) Repayment of the loan
If at the beginning of the loan agreement, it was expected that the repayment option would not be exercised, then the effective
interest rate would be 8% and at 30 April 2008, the loan would be stated at $2 million in the statement of financial position
with interest of $160,000 having been paid and accounted for. If, however, at 1 May 2007, the option was expected to be
exercised, then the effective interest rate would be 9·1% and at 30 April 2008, the cash interest paid would have been
$160,000 and the interest charged to the income statement would have been (9·1% x $2 million) $182,000, giving a
statement of financial position figure of $2,022,000 for the amount of the financial liability. However, IAS39 requires the
carrying amount of the financial instrument to be adjusted to reflect actual and revised estimated cash flows. Thus, even if
the option was not expected to be exercised at the outset but at a later date exercise became likely, then the carrying amount
would be revised so that it represented the expected future cash flows using the effective interest rate. As regards the
discussions with the bank over repayment in the next financial year, if the loan was shown as current, then the requirements
of IAS1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ would not be met. Sirus has an unconditional right to defer settlement for longer
than twelve months and the liability is not due to be legally settled in 12 months. Sirus’s discussions should not be considered
when determining the loan’s classification.
It is hoped that the above report clarifies matters.

(b) Show how the adjustments affect:

(i) Closing inventory;


(d) Explain to the management of Bailey’s why consideration should be given to resolving the problems through:

(i) job rotation; (5 marks)

(d) (i) Job rotation is the planned rotation of staff between jobs and tasks to reduce monotony and boredom and provide fresh opportunities and challenges. This could be a useful way of encouraging employees at Bailey’s alongside enrichment and enlargement. Rotation would encourage better understanding between employees at Bailey’s. It takes two forms,the transfer to another job after some time in an existing job and the introduction of another individual to the job being vacated, or as a form. of training where individuals are moved through different jobs to learn new skills.

(b) Router has a number of film studios and office buildings. The office buildings are in prestigious areas whereas

the film studios are located in ‘out of town’ locations. The management of Router wish to apply the ‘revaluation

model’ to the office buildings and the ‘cost model’ to the film studios in the year ended 31 May 2007. At present

both types of buildings are valued using the ‘revaluation model’. One of the film studios has been converted to a

theme park. In this case only, the land and buildings on the park are leased on a single lease from a third party.

The lease term was 30 years in 1990. The lease of the land and buildings was classified as a finance lease even

though the financial statements purport to comply with IAS 17 ‘Leases’.

The terms of the lease were changed on 31 May 2007. Router is now going to terminate the lease early in 2015

in exchange for a payment of $10 million on 31 May 2007 and a reduction in the monthly lease payments.

Router intends to move from the site in 2015. The revised lease terms have not resulted in a change of

classification of the lease in the financial statements of Router. (10 marks)


Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.

(b) IAS16 ‘Property, Plant and Equipment’ permits assets to be revalued on a class by class basis. The different characteristics
of the buildings allow them to be classified separately. Different measurement models can, therefore, be used for the office
buildings and the film studios. However, IAS8 ‘Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors’ says that
once an entity has decided on its accounting policies, it should apply them consistently from period to period and across all
relevant transactions. An entity can change its accounting policies but only in specific circumstances. These circumstances
(a) where there is a new accounting standard or interpretation or changes to an accounting standard
(b) where the change results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects
of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity’s financial position, financial performance, or cash flows
Voluntary changes in accounting policies are quite uncommon but may occur when an accounting policy is no longer
appropriate. Router will have to ensure that the change in accounting policy meets the criteria in IAS8. Additionally,
depreciated historical cost will have to be calculated for the film studios at the commencement of the period and the opening
balance on the revaluation reserve and any other affected component of equity adjusted. The comparative amounts for each
prior period should be presented as if the new accounting policy had always been applied. There are limits on retrospective
application on the grounds of impracticability.
It is surprising that the lease of the land is considered to be a finance lease under IAS17 ‘Leases’. Land is considered to have
an indefinite life and should, therefore normally be classified as an operating lease unless ownership passes to the lessee
during the lease term. The lease of the land should be separated out from the lease and treated individually. The value of the
land so determined would be taken off the balance sheet in terms of the liability and asset and the lease payments treated
as rentals in the income statement. A prior period adjustment should also be made. The buildings would continue to be
treated as property, plant and equipment (PPE) and the carrying amount not adjusted. However, the remaining useful life of
the building should be revised to reflect the shorter lease term. This will result in the carrying amount being depreciated over
the shorter period. This change to the depreciation policy is applied prospectively not retrospectively.
The lease liability must be assessed for derecognition under IAS39 ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’,
because of the revision of the lease terms, in order to determine whether the new terms are substantially different from the
old. The purpose of this is to determine whether the change in terms is a modification or an extinguishment. The change
seems to constitute a ‘modification’ because there is little change to the terms. The lease liability is, therefore, amended by
deducting the one off payment ($10 million) from the carrying amount (after adjustment for the lease of land) together with
any transaction costs. The lease liability is then remeasured to the present value of the revised future cash flows, discounted
using the original effective interest rate. Any adjustment made in remeasuring the lease liability will be taken to the income

ACCA/CAT预测试题7篇 第7篇

(b) Using models where appropriate, what are likely to be the critical success factors (CSFs) as the business

grows and develops? (10 marks)

(b) David even at this early stage needs to identify the critical success factors and related performance indicators that will show
that the concept is turning into a business reality. Many of the success factors will be linked to customer needs and
expectations and therefore where David’s business must excel in order to outperform. the competition. As an innovator one of
the critical success factors will be the time taken to develop and launch the new vase. Being first-to-market will be critical for
success. His ability to generate sales from demanding corporate customers will be a real indicator of that success. David will
need to ensure that he has adequate patent protection for the product and recognise that it will have a product life cycle.
There look to be a number of alternative markets and the ability to customise the product may be a CSF. Greiner indicates
the different stages a growing business goes through and the different problems associated with each stage. One of David’s
key problems will be to decide what type of business he wants to be. From the scenario it looks as if he is aiming to carry
out most of the functions himself and there is a need to decide what he does and what he gets others to do for him. Indeed
the skills he has may be as an innovator rather than as someone who carries out manufacture, distribution, etc. Gift Designs
may develop most quickly as a firm that creates new products and then licences them to larger firms with the skills to
penetrate the many market opportunities that are present. It is important for David to recognise that turning the product
concept into a viable and growing business may result in a business and a business model very different to what he
anticipated. Gift Designs needs to have the flexibility and agility to take advantage of the opportunities that will emerge over

(ii) The percentage change in revenue, total costs and net assets during the year ended 31 May 2008 that

would have been required in order to have achieved a target ROI of 20% by the Beetown centre. Your

answer should consider each of these three variables in isolation. State any assumptions that you make.

(6 marks)

(ii) The ROI of Beetown is currently 13·96%. In order to obtain an ROI of 20%, operating profit would need to increase to
(20% x $3,160,000) = $632,000, based on the current level of net assets. Three alternative ways in which a target
ROI of 20% could be achieved for the Beetown centre are as follows:
(1) Attempts could be made to increase revenue by attracting more clients while keeping invested capital and operating
profit per $ of revenue constant. Revenue would have to increase to $2,361,644, assuming that the current level
of profitability is maintained and fixed costs remain unchanged. The current rate of contribution to revenue is
$2,100,000 – $567,000 = $1,533,000/$2,100,000 = 73%. Operating profit needs to increase by $191,000
in order to achieve an ROI of 20%. Therefore, revenue needs to increase by $191,000/0·73 = $261,644 =
(2) Attempts could be made to decrease the level of operating costs by, for example, increasing the efficiency of
maintenance operations. This would have the effect of increasing operating profit per $ of revenue. This would
require that revenue and invested capital were kept constant. Total operating costs would need to fall by $191,000
in order to obtain an ROI of 20%. This represents a percentage decrease of 191,000/1,659,000 = 11·5%. If fixed
costs were truly fixed, then variable costs would need to fall to a level of $376,000, which represents a decrease
of 33·7%.
(3) Attempts could be made to decrease the net asset base of HFG by, for example, reducing debtor balances and/or
increasing creditor balances, while keeping turnover and operating profit per $ of revenue constant. Net assets
would need to fall to a level of ($441,000/0·2) = $2,205,000, which represents a percentage decrease
amounting to $3,160,000 – $2,205,000 = 955,000/3,160,000 = 30·2%.

5 An enterprise has made a material change to an accounting policy in preparing its current financial statements.

Which of the following disclosures are required by IAS 8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates

and errors in these financial statements?

1 The reasons for the change.

2 The amount of the consequent adjustment in the current period and in comparative information for prior periods.

3 An estimate of the effect of the change on future periods, where possible.

A 1 and 2 only

B 1 and 3 only

C 2 and 3 only

D All three items


(iv) Tyre recently undertook a sales campaign whereby customers can obtain free car accessories, by presenting a

coupon, which has been included in an advertisement in a national newspaper, on the purchase of a vehicle.

The offer is valid for a limited time period from 1 January 2006 until 31 July 2006. The management are unsure

as to how to treat this offer in the financial statements for the year ended 31 May 2006.

(5 marks)


Advise the directors of Tyre on how to treat the above items in the financial statements for the year ended

31 May 2006.

(The mark allocation is shown against each of the above items)

(iv) Car accessories
An obligation should not be recognised for the coupons and no provision created under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent
Liabilities and Contingent Assets’. A provision should only be recognised where there is an obligating event. There has to be
a present obligation (legal or constructive), the probability of an outflow of resources and the ability to make a reliable estimate
of the amount of the obligation. These conditions do not seem to have been met. Until the vehicle is purchased the
accessories cannot be obtained. That is the point at which the present obligation arises, the outflow of resources occurs and
an estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. When the car is purchased, the accessories become part of the
cost of the sale. The revenue recognised will be the amount received from the customer (the sales price). The revenue will
not be grossed up to include the value of the accessories.

6 Charles and Jane Miro, aged 31 and 34 years respectively, have been married for ten years and have two children

aged six and eight years. Charles is a teacher but for the last five years he has stayed at home to look after their

children. Jane works as a translator for Speak Write Ltd.

Speak Write Ltd was formed and began trading on 6 April 2006. It provides translation services to universities. Jane,

who ceased employment with Barnham University to found the company, owns 100% of its ordinary share capital

and is its only employee.

Speak Write Ltd has translated documents for four different universities since it began trading. Its biggest client is

Barnham University which represents 70% of the company’s gross income. It is estimated that the company’s gross

fee income for its first 12 months of trading will be £110,000. Speak Write Ltd usually agrees fixed fees in advance

with its clients although it charges for some projects by reference to the number of days taken to do the work. None

of the universities makes any payment to Speak Write Ltd in respect of Jane being on holiday or sick.

All of the universities insist that Jane does the work herself. Jane carries out the work for three of the universities in

her office at home using a computer and specialised software owned by Speak Write Ltd. The work she does for

Barnham University is done in the university’s library on one of its computers as the documents concerned are too

delicate to move.

The first set of accounts for Speak Write Ltd will be drawn up for the year ending 5 April 2007. It is estimated that

the company’s tax adjusted trading profit for this period will be £52,500. This figure is after deducting Jane’s salary

of £4,000 per month and the related national insurance contributions but before any adjustments required by the

application of the personal service companies (IR 35) legislation. The company has no other sources of income or

capital gains.

Jane has not entered into any communication with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) with respect to the company

and wants to know:

– When the corporation tax computation should be submitted and when the tax is due.

– When the corporation tax computation can be regarded as having been agreed by HMRC.

Charles and Jane have requested a meeting to discuss the family’s finances. In particular, they wish to consider the

shortfall in the family’s annual income and any other related issues if Jane were to die. Their mortgage is covered

by a term assurance policy but neither of them have made any pension contributions or carried out any other long

term financial planning.

Jane has estimated that her annual after tax income from Speak Write Ltd, on the assumption that she extracts all of

the company’s profits, will be £58,000. Charles owns two investment properties that together generate after tax

income of £8,500. He estimates that he could earn £28,000 after tax if he were to return to work.

The couple’s annual surplus income, after payment of all household expenditure including mortgage payments of

£900 per month, is £21,000. Charles and Jane have no other sources of income.


(a) Write a letter to Jane setting out:

(i) the arguments that HMRC could put forward, based only on the facts set out above, in support of

applying the IR 35 legislation to Speak Write Ltd; and

(ii) the additional income tax and national insurance contributions that would be payable, together with

their due date of payment, if HMRC applied the IR 35 legislation to all of the company’s income in

2006/07. (11 marks)



(b) Assuming that Thai Curry Ltd claims relief for its trading loss against total profits under s.393A ICTA 1988,calculate the company’s corporation tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2005. (10 marks)


(a) An assistant of yours has been criticised over a piece of assessed work that he produced for his study course for giving the definition of a non-current asset as ‘a physical asset of substantial cost, owned by the company, which will last longer than one year’.


Provide an explanation to your assistant of the weaknesses in his definition of non-current assets when

compared to the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) view of assets. (4 marks)

(b) The same assistant has encountered the following matters during the preparation of the draft financial statements of Darby for the year ending 30 September 2009. He has given an explanation of his treatment of them.

(i) Darby spent $200,000 sending its staff on training courses during the year. This has already led to an

improvement in the company’s efficiency and resulted in cost savings. The organiser of the course has stated that the benefits from the training should last for a minimum of four years. The assistant has therefore treated the cost of the training as an intangible asset and charged six months’ amortisation based on the average date during the year on which the training courses were completed. (3 marks)

(ii) During the year the company started research work with a view to the eventual development of a new

processor chip. By 30 September 2009 it had spent $1·6 million on this project. Darby has a past history

of being particularly successful in bringing similar projects to a profitable conclusion. As a consequence the

assistant has treated the expenditure to date on this project as an asset in the statement of financial position.

Darby was also commissioned by a customer to research and, if feasible, produce a computer system to

install in motor vehicles that can automatically stop the vehicle if it is about to be involved in a collision. At

30 September 2009, Darby had spent $2·4 million on this project, but at this date it was uncertain as to

whether the project would be successful. As a consequence the assistant has treated the $2·4 million as an

expense in the income statement. (4 marks)

(iii) Darby signed a contract (for an initial three years) in August 2009 with a company called Media Today to

install a satellite dish and cabling system to a newly built group of residential apartments. Media Today will

provide telephone and television services to the residents of the apartments via the satellite system and pay

Darby $50,000 per annum commencing in December 2009. Work on the installation commenced on

1 September 2009 and the expenditure to 30 September 2009 was $58,000. The installation is expected

to be completed by 31 October 2009. Previous experience with similar contracts indicates that Darby will

make a total profit of $40,000 over the three years on this initial contract. The assistant correctly recorded

the costs to 30 September 2009 of $58,000 as a non-current asset, but then wrote this amount down to

$40,000 (the expected total profit) because he believed the asset to be impaired.

The contract is not a finance lease. Ignore discounting. (4 marks)


For each of the above items (i) to (iii) comment on the assistant’s treatment of them in the financial

statements for the year ended 30 September 2009 and advise him how they should be treated under

International Financial Reporting Standards.

Note: the mark allocation is shown against each of the three items above.


3 Susan Paullaos was recently appointed as a non-executive member of the internal audit committee of Gluck and

Goodman, a public listed company producing complex engineering products. Barney Chester, the executive finance

director who chairs the committee, has always viewed the purpose of internal audit as primarily financial in nature

and as long as financial controls are seen to be fully in place, he is less concerned with other aspects of internal

control. When Susan asked about operational controls in the production facility Barney said that these were not the

concern of the internal audit committee. This, he said, was because as long as the accounting systems and financial

controls were fully functional, all other systems may be assumed to be working correctly.

Susan, however, was concerned with the operational and quality controls in the production facility. She spoke to

production director Aaron Hardanger, and asked if he would be prepared to produce regular reports for the internal

audit committee on levels of specification compliance and other control issues. Mr Hardanger said that the internal

audit committee had always trusted him because his reputation as a manager was very good. He said that he had

never been asked to provide compliance evidence to the internal audit committee and saw no reason as to why he

should start doing so now.

At board level, the non-executive chairman, George Allejandra, said that he only instituted the internal audit committee

in the first place in order to be seen to be in compliance with the stock market’s requirement that Gluck and Goodman

should have one. He believed that internal audit committees didn’t add materially to the company. They were, he

believed, one of those ‘outrageous demands’ that regulatory authorities made without considering the consequences

in smaller companies nor the individual needs of different companies. He also complained about the need to have an

internal auditor. He said that Gluck and Goodman used to have a full time internal auditor but when he left a year

ago, he wasn’t replaced. The audit committee didn’t feel it needed an internal auditor because Barney Chester believed

that only financial control information was important and he could get that information from his management


Susan asked Mr Allejandra if he recognised that the company was exposing itself to increased market risks by failing

to have an effective audit committee. Mr Allejandra said he didn’t know what a market risk was.


(a) Internal control and audit are considered to be important parts of sound corporate governance.

(i) Describe FIVE general objectives of internal control. (5 marks)

3 (a) (i) FIVE general objectives of internal control
An internal control system comprises the whole network of systems established in an organisation to provide reasonable
assurance that organisational objectives will be achieved.
Specifically, the general objectives of internal control are as follows:
To ensure the orderly and efficient conduct of business in respect of systems being in place and fully implemented.
Controls mean that business processes and transactions take place without disruption with less risk or disturbance and
this, in turn, adds value and creates shareholder value.
To safeguard the assets of the business. Assets include tangibles and intangibles, and controls are necessary to ensure
they are optimally utilised and protected from misuse, fraud, misappropriation or theft.
To prevent and detect fraud. Controls are necessary to show up any operational or financial disagreements that might
be the result of theft or fraud. This might include off-balance sheet financing or the use of unauthorised accounting
policies, inventory controls, use of company property and similar.
To ensure the completeness and accuracy of accounting records. Ensuring that all accounting transactions are fully and
accurately recorded, that assets and liabilities are correctly identified and valued, and that all costs and revenues can be
fully accounted for.
To ensure the timely preparation of financial information which applies to statutory reporting (of year end accounts, for
example) and also management accounts, if appropriate, for the facilitation of effective management decision-making.
[Tutorial note: candidates may address these general objectives using different wordings based on analyses of different
study manuals. Allow latitude]