2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第1辑

20 IAS 2 Inventories defines the extent to which overheads are included in the cost of inventories of finished goods.

Which of the following statements about the IAS 2 requirements in this area are correct?

1 Finished goods inventories may be valued on the basis of labour and materials cost only, without including overheads.

2 Carriage inwards, but not carriage outwards, should be included in overheads when valuing inventories of finished goods.

3 Factory management costs should be included in fixed overheads allocated to inventories of finished goods.

A All three statements are correct

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 2 and 3 only


(c) Mentoring. (3 marks)

(c) Mentoring, not to be confused with coaching, involves training on a wider range of activities, often aimed at career development of employees at supervisory or management level. The trainee is provided with a development programme and is under close supervision. The mentor should not be the trainee’s immediate supervisor or manager.

(b) Explain how growth may be assessed, and critically discuss the advantages and issues that might arise as a

result of a decision by the directors of CSG to pursue the objective of growth. (8 marks)

(b) Growth may be measured in a number of ways which are as follows:
Cash flow
This is a very important measure of growth as it ultimately determines the amount of funds available for re-investment by any
Sales revenue
Growth in sales revenues generated is only of real value to investors if it precipitates growth in profits.
There are many measures relating to profit which include sales margin, earnings before interest, taxation, depreciation and
amortisation (EBITDA) and earnings per share. More sophisticated measures such as return on capital employed and residual
income consider the size of the investment relative to the level of profits earned. In general terms, measures of profitability
are only meaningful if they are used as a basis for comparisons over time or in conjunction with other measures of
performance. Growth rate in profitability are useful when compared with other companies and also with other industries.
Return on investment
A growing return upon invested capital suggests that capital is being used more and more productively. Indicators of a growing
return would be measured by reference to dividend payment and capital growth.
Market share
Growth in market share is generally seen as positive as it can generate economies of scale.
Number of products/service offerings
Growth is only regarded as useful if products and services are profitable.
Number of employees
Measures of productivity such as value added per employee and profit per employee are often used by shareholders in
assessing growth. Very often an increased headcount is a measure of success in circumstances where more people are
needed in order to deliver a service to a required standard. However it is incumbent on management to ensure that all
employees are utilised in an effective manner.
It is a widely held belief that growth requires profits and that growth produces profits. Profits are essential in order to prevent
a company which has achieved growth from becoming a target for a take-over or in a worse case scenario goes into
liquidation. Hence it is fundamental that a business is profitable throughout its existence. Growth accompanied by growth in
profits is also likely to aid the long-term survival of an organisation. CSG operates in Swingland which experiences fluctuations
in its economic climate and in this respect the exploitation of profitable growth opportunities will help CSG to survive at the
expense of its competitors who do not exploit such opportunities.
Note: Alternative relevant discussion and examples would be accepted.

4 Assume today’s date is 15 May 2005.

In March 1999, Bob was made redundant from his job as a furniture salesman. He decided to travel round the world,

and did so, returning to the UK in May 2001. Bob then decided to set up his own business selling furniture. He

started trading on 1 October 2001. After some initial success, the business made losses as Bob tried to win more

customers. However, he was eventually successful, and the business subsequently made profits.

The results for Bob’s business were as follows:

Period Schedule D Case I

Trading Profits/(losses)

1 October 2001 – 30 April 2002 13,500

1 May 2002 – 30 April 2003 (18,000)

1 May 2003 – 30 April 2004 28,000

Bob required funds to help start his business, so he raised money in three ways:

(1) Bob is a keen cricket fan, and in the 1990s, he collected many books on cricket players. To raise money, Bob

started selling books from his collection. These had risen considerably in value and sold for between £150 and

£300 per book. None of the books forms part of a set. Bob created an internet website to advertise the books.

Bob has not declared this income, as he believes that the proceeds from selling the books are non-taxable.

(2) He disposed of two paintings and an antique silver coffee set at auction on 1 December 2004, realising

chargeable gains totalling £23,720.

(3) Bob took a part time job in a furniture store on 1 January 2003. His annual salary has remained at £12,600

per year since he started this employment.

Bob has 5,000 shares in Willis Ltd, an unquoted trading company based in the UK. He subscribed for these shares

in August 2000, paying £3 per share. On 1 December 2004, Bob received a letter informing him that the company

had gone into receivership. As a result, his shares were almost worthless. The receivers dealing with the company

estimated that on the liquidation of the company, he would receive no more than 10p per share for his shareholding.

He has not yet received any money.


(a) Write a letter to Bob advising him on whether or not he is correct in believing that his book sales are nontaxable.

Your advice should include reference to the badges of trade and their application to this case.

(9 marks)

(a) Evidence of trading
[Client address]
[Own address]
Dear Bob,
I note that you have been selling some books in order to raise some extra income. While you believe that the sums are not
taxable, I believe that there may be a risk of the book sales being treated as a trade, and therefore taxable under Schedule D
Case I. We need to refer to guidance in the form. of a set of principles known as the ‘badges of trade’. These help determine
whether or not a trade exists, and need to be looked at in their entirety. The badges are as follows.
1. The subject matter
Some assets can be enjoyed by themselves as an investment, while others (such as large amounts of aircraft linen) are
clearly not. It is likely that such assets are acquired as trading stock, and are therefore a sign of trading. Sporting books
can be an investment, and so this test is not conclusive.
2. Frequency of transactions
Where transactions are frequent (not one-offs), this suggests trading. You have sold several books, which might suggest
trading, although you have only done this for a short period - between one and two years.
3. Length of ownership
Where items are bought and sold soon afterwards, this indicates trading. You bought your books in the 1990s, and the
length of time between acquisition and sale would not suggest trading.
4. Supplementary work and marketing
You are actively marketing the books on your internet website, which is an indication of trading.
5. Profit motive
A motive to make profit suggests trading activity. You sold the books to raise funds for your property business, and not
to make a profit as such, which suggests that your motive was to raise cash, and not make profits.
6. The way in which the asset sold was acquired.
Selling assets which were acquired unintentionally (such as a gift) is not usually seen as trading. You acquired the books
for your collection over a period of time, and while these were intentional acquisitions, the reasons for doing so were for
your personal pleasure.
By applying all of these tests, it should be possible to argue that you were not trading, merely selling some assets in
order to generate short-term cash for your business.
The asset disposals will be taxed under the capital gain tax rules, but as the books are chattels and do not form. part of
a set, they will be exempt from capital gains tax.
Yours sincerely
A N. Accountant

(b) Criticise the internal control and internal audit arrangements at Gluck and Goodman as described in the case

scenario. (10 marks)

(b) Criticisms
The audit committee is chaired by an executive director. One of the most important roles of an audit committee is to review
and monitor internal controls. An executive director is not an independent person and so having Mr Chester as chairman
undermines the purpose of the committee as far as its role in governance is concerned.
Mr Chester, the audit committee chairman, considers only financial controls to be important and undermines the purpose of
the committee as far as its role in governance is concerned. There is no recognition of other risks and there is a belief that
management accounting can provide all necessary information. This viewpoint fails to recognise the importance of other
control mechanisms such as technical and operational controls.
Mr Hardanger’s performance was trusted without supporting evidence because of his reputation as a good manager. An audit
committee must be blind to reputation and treat all parts of the business equally. All functions can be subject to monitor and
review without ‘fear or favour’ and the complexity of the production facility makes it an obvious subject of frequent attention.
The audit committee does not enjoy the full support of the non-executive chairman, Mr Allejandra. On the contrary in fact,
he is sceptical about its value. In most situations, the audit committee reports to the chairman and so it is very important
that the chairman protects the audit committee from criticism from executive colleagues, which is unlikely given the situation
at Gluck and Goodman.
There is no internal auditor to report to the committee and hence no flow of information upon which to make control decisions.
Internal auditors are the operational ‘arms’ of an audit committee and without them, the audit committee will have little or no
relevant data upon which to monitor and review control systems in the company.
The ineffectiveness of the internal audit could increase the cost of the external audit. If external auditors view internal controls
as weak they would be likely to require increased attention to audit trails, etc. that would, in turn, increase cost.

Moonstar Co is a property development company which is planning to undertake a $200 million commercial property development. Moonstar Co has had some difficulties over the last few years, with some developments not generating the expected returns and the company has at times struggled to pay its finance costs. As a result Moonstar Co’s credit rating has been lowered, affecting the terms it can obtain for bank finance. Although Moonstar Co is listed on its local stock exchange, 75% of the share capital is held by members of the family who founded the company. The family members who are shareholders do not wish to subscribe for a rights issue and are unwilling to dilute their control over the company by authorising a new issue of equity shares. Moonstar Co’s board is therefore considering other methods of financing the development, which the directors believe will generate higher returns than other recent investments, as the country where Moonstar Co is based appears to be emerging from recession.

Securitisation proposals

One of the non-executive directors of Moonstar Co has proposed that it should raise funds by means of a securitisation process, transferring the rights to the rental income from the commercial property development to a special purpose vehicle. Her proposals assume that the leases will generate an income of 11% per annum to Moonstar Co over a ten-year period. She proposes that Moonstar Co should use 90% of the value of the investment for a collateralised loan obligation which should be structured as follows:

– 60% of the collateral value to support a tranche of A-rated floating rate loan notes offering investors LIBOR plus 150 basis points

– 15% of the collateral value to support a tranche of B-rated fixed rate loan notes offering investors 12%

– 15% of the collateral value to support a tranche of C-rated fixed rate loan notes offering investors 13%

– 10% of the collateral value to support a tranche as subordinated certificates, with the return being the excess of receipts over payments from the securitisation process

The non-executive director believes that there will be sufficient demand for all tranches of the loan notes from investors. Investors will expect that the income stream from the development to be low risk, as they will expect the property market to improve with the recession coming to an end and enough potential lessees to be attracted by the new development.

The non-executive director predicts that there would be annual costs of $200,000 in administering the loan. She acknowledges that there would be interest rate risks associated with the proposal, and proposes a fixed for variable interest rate swap on the A-rated floating rate notes, exchanging LIBOR for 9·5%.

However the finance director believes that the prediction of the income from the development that the non-executive director has made is over-optimistic. He believes that it is most likely that the total value of the rental income will be 5% lower than the non-executive director has forecast. He believes that there is some risk that the returns could be so low as to jeopardise the income for the C-rated fixed rate loan note holders.

Islamic finance

Moonstar Co’s chief executive has wondered whether Sukuk finance would be a better way of funding the development than the securitisation.

Moonstar Co’s chairman has pointed out that a major bank in the country where Moonstar Co is located has begun to offer a range of Islamic financial products. The chairman has suggested that a Mudaraba contract would be the most appropriate method of providing the funds required for the investment.


(a) Calculate the amounts in $ which each of the tranches can expect to receive from the securitisation arrangement proposed by the non-executive director and discuss how the variability in rental income affects the returns from the securitisation. (11 marks)

(b) Discuss the benefits and risks for Moonstar Co associated with the securitisation arrangement that the non-executive director has proposed. (6 marks)

(c) (i) Discuss the suitability of Sukuk finance to fund the investment, including an assessment of its appeal to potential investors. (4 marks)

(ii) Discuss whether a Mudaraba contract would be an appropriate method of financing the investment and discuss why the bank may have concerns about providing finance by this method. (4 marks)


(a) An annual cash flow account compares the estimated cash flows receivable from the property against the liabilities within the securitisation process. The swap introduces leverage into the arrangement.

The holders of the certificates are expected to receive $3·17million on $18 million, giving them a return of 17·6%. If the cash flows are 5% lower than the non-executive director has predicted, annual revenue received will fall to $20·90 million, reducing the balance available for the subordinated certificates to $2·07 million, giving a return of 11·5% on the subordinated certificates, which is below the returns offered on the B and C-rated loan notes. The point at which the holders of the certificates will receive nothing and below which the holders of the C-rated loan notes will not receive their full income will be an annual income of $18·83 million (a return of 9·4%), which is 14·4% less than the income that the non-executive director has forecast.

(b) Benefits

The finance costs of the securitisation may be lower than the finance costs of ordinary loan capital. The cash flows from the commercial property development may be regarded as lower risk than Moonstar Co’s other revenue streams. This will impact upon the rates that Moonstar Co is able to offer borrowers.

The securitisation matches the assets of the future cash flows to the liabilities to loan note holders. The non-executive director is assuming a steady stream of lease income over the next 10 years, with the development probably being close to being fully occupied over that period.

The securitisation means that Moonstar Co is no longer concerned with the risk that the level of earnings from the properties will be insufficient to pay the finance costs. Risks have effectively been transferred to the loan note holders.


Not all of the tranches may appeal to investors. The risk-return relationship on the subordinated certificates does not look very appealing, with the return quite likely to be below what is received on the C-rated loan notes. Even the C-rated loan note holders may question the relationship between the risk and return if there is continued uncertainty in the property sector.

If Moonstar Co seeks funding from other sources for other developments, transferring out a lower risk income stream means that the residual risks associated with the rest of Moonstar Co’s portfolio will be higher. This may affect the availability and terms of other borrowing.

It appears that the size of the securitisation should be large enough for the costs to be bearable. However Moonstar Co may face unforeseen costs, possibly unexpected management or legal expenses.

(c) (i) Sukuk finance could be appropriate for the securitisation of the leasing portfolio. An asset-backed Sukuk would be the same kind of arrangement as the securitisation, where assets are transferred to a special purpose vehicle and the returns and repayments are directly financed by the income from the assets. The Sukuk holders would bear the risks and returns of the relationship.

The other type of Sukuk would be more like a sale and leaseback of the development. Here the Sukuk holders would be guaranteed a rental, so it would seem less appropriate for Moonstar Co if there is significant uncertainty about the returns from the development.

The main issue with the asset-backed Sukuk finance is whether it would be as appealing as certainly the A-tranche of the securitisation arrangement which the non-executive director has proposed. The safer income that the securitisation offers A-tranche investors may be more appealing to investors than a marginally better return from the Sukuk. There will also be costs involved in establishing and gaining approval for the Sukuk, although these costs may be less than for the securitisation arrangement described above.

(ii) A Mudaraba contract would involve the bank providing capital for Moonstar Co to invest in the development. Moonstar Co would manage the investment which the capital funded. Profits from the investment would be shared with the bank, but losses would be solely borne by the bank. A Mudaraba contract is essentially an equity partnership, so Moonstar Co might not face the threat to its credit rating which it would if it obtained ordinary loan finance for the development. A Mudaraba contract would also represent a diversification of sources of finance. It would not require the commitment to pay interest that loan finance would involve.

Moonstar Co would maintain control over the running of the project. A Mudaraba contract would offer a method of obtaining equity funding without the dilution of control which an issue of shares to external shareholders would bring. This is likely to make it appealing to Moonstar Co’s directors, given their desire to maintain a dominant influence over the business.

The bank would be concerned about the uncertainties regarding the rental income from the development. Although the lack of involvement by the bank might appeal to Moonstar Co's directors, the bank might not find it so attractive. The bank might be concerned about information asymmetry – that Moonstar Co’s management might be reluctant to supply the bank with the information it needs to judge how well its investment is performing.

(c) Comment on four reasons why the Managing Director of Quicklink Ltd might consider the acquisition of the

Celer Transport business to be a ‘good strategic move’ insofar as may be determined from the information

provided. (5 marks)


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第2辑

(ii) Theory Y. (5 marks)

(ii) Theory Y is at the opposite end of the continuum and reflects a contemporary approach to motivation, reflecting growth in professional and service employment. It is based on the idea that the goals of the individual and the organsiation can– indeed should – be integrated and that personal fulfilment can be achieved through the workplace. It assumes that for most people, work is as natural as rest or play and employees will exercise self-discipline and self-direction in helping to achieve the organisation’s objectives. Physical and mental effort at work is perfectly natural and is actively sought as a source of personal satisfaction.
In addition, the average employee seeks and accepts responsibilty and creativity. Innovative thinking is widely distributed amongst the whole population and should therefore be encouraged in the work situation.
The intellectual ability of the average person is only partly used and should be encouraged and thus individuals are motivated by seeking self-achievement. Since control and punishment are not required, management therefore has to encourage and develop the individual. However, the operation of a Theory Y approach can be difficult and frustrating,time consuming and sometimes regarded with suspicion.

(b) Mabel has two objectives when making the gifts to Bruce and Padma:

(1) To pay no tax on any gift in her lifetime; and

(2) To reduce the eventual liability to inheritance tax on her death.

Advise Mabel which item to gift to Bruce and to Padma in order to satisfy her objectives. Give reasons for

your advice.

Your advice should include a computation of the inheritance tax saved as a result of the two gifts, on the

assumption that Mabel dies on 30 June 2011. (10 marks)



(c) In August 2004 it was discovered that the inventory at 31 December 2003 had been overstated by $100,000.

(4 marks)


Advise the directors on the correct treatment of these matters, stating the relevant accounting standard which

justifies your answer in each case.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three matters.

(c) The opening inventory should be included in the current year’s income statement at the corrected figure, and the opening
balance of retained profit reduced by $100,000. The $100,000 reduction will appear in the statement of changes in equity.
(IAS8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors)

6 Sergio and Gerard each inherited a half interest in a property, ‘Hilltop’, in October 2005. ‘Hilltop’ had a probate value

of £124,000, but in November 2005 it was badly damaged by fire. In January 2006 the insurance company made

a payment of £81,700 each to Sergio and Gerard. In February 2006 Sergio and Gerard each spent £55,500 of the

insurance proceeds on restoring the property. ‘Hilltop’ was worth £269,000 following the restoration work. In July

2006, Sergio and Gerard sold ‘Hilltop’ for £310,000.

Sergio is 69 years old and a widower with three adult children and seven grandchildren. His annual income consists

of a pension of £9,900 and interest of £300 on savings of £7,600 in a bank deposit account. Sergio owns his home

but no other significant assets. He plans to buy a domestic rental property with the proceeds from the sale of ‘Hilltop’,

such that on his death he will have a significant asset which can be sold and divided between the members of his


Gerard is 34 years old. He is employed by Fizz plc on a salary of £66,500 per year together with a performance

related bonus. Gerard estimates that he will receive a bonus in December 2007 of £4,500, in line with previous

years, and that his taxable benefits in the tax year 2007/08 will amount to £7,140. He also expects to receive

dividends from UK companies of £1,935 and bank interest of £648 in the tax year 2007/08. Gerard intends to set

up a personal pension plan in August 2007. He has not made any pension contributions in the past and proposes to

use part of the proceeds from the sale of ‘Hilltop’ to make the maximum possible tax allowable contribution.

Fizz plc has announced that it intends to replace the performance related bonus scheme with a share incentive plan,

also linked to performance, with effect from 6 April 2008. Gerard estimates that Fizz plc will award him free shares

worth £2,100 each year. He will also purchase partnership shares worth £700 each year and, as a result, will be

awarded matching shares (further free shares) worth £1,400.


(a) Calculate the chargeable gains arising on the receipt of the insurance proceeds in January 2006 and the sale

of ‘Hilltop’ in July 2006. You should assume that any elections necessary to minimise the gain on the receipt

of the insurance proceeds have been submitted. (4 marks)



(b) Explain THREE problems in undertaking a performance comparison of GBC and TTC and also explain THREE

items of additional information that would be of assistance in assessing the operating and financial

performance of GBC and TTC. (6 marks)

(b) The relative performance of GBC and TTC is difficult to assess due to the following:
(i) They would appear to have differing objectives. GBC provides free transport for senior citizens and charges lower fares
than TTC. GBC also uses environmentally friendly fuel. Each of these factors inhibits a direct comparison of the two
(ii) The organisations are funded differently. It is evident that TTC uses loan finance to fund operations which gives rise to
interest charges which are not incurred by GBC. On the other hand GBC is funded by the government.
(iii) TTC has higher fixed asset values which precipitate much higher depreciation charges.
(iv) There is also a lack of non-financial performance indicators such as the number of on-time arrivals, number of accidents,
complaints re passenger dissatisfaction, staff turnover, adherence to relevant legislation, convenience of pick-up/drop-off
points etc.
The following items of additional information would assist in assessing the financial and operating performance of the two
(1) The number of staff employed by each organisation would assist in the assessment of the financial and operating
performance. Ratios such as revenue generated per employee and operating costs per employee might provide useful
comparators of financial and operating efficiency.
(2) Safety and accident records of each organisation would give an indication of the reliability and safety afforded to
passengers by each organisation. Passenger safety is of paramount importance to all passenger transport businesses.
(3) Records of late/cancelled buses together with the number of complaints received from the passengers would provide an
indication of the efficiency of the service provided by each organisation.
(4) The accessibility of the services, location of pick-up/drop-off points would provide an indication of the flexibility of service
delivery provided by each organisation.
(5) The comfort, cleanliness and age of the respective bus fleets would provide a further indication of the level of service
quality provided by each organisation.
(6) The fuel emission levels of the buses operated by each organisation would provide an indication of the extent of their
‘social responsibility’.
Notes: (i) Only three items of additional information were required.
(ii) Alternative relevant discussion and examples would be acceptable.

2 The draft financial statements of Rampion, a limited liability company, for the year ended 31 December 2005

included the following figures:


Profit 684,000

Closing inventory 116,800

Trade receivables 248,000

Allowance for receivables 10,000

No adjustments have yet been made for the following matters:

(1) The company’s inventory count was carried out on 3 January 2006 leading to the figure shown above. Sales

between the close of business on 31 December 2005 and the inventory count totalled $36,000. There were no

deliveries from suppliers in that period. The company fixes selling prices to produce a 40% gross profit on sales.

The $36,000 sales were included in the sales records in January 2006.

(2) $10,000 of goods supplied on sale or return terms in December 2005 have been included as sales and

receivables. They had cost $6,000. On 10 January 2006 the customer returned the goods in good condition.

(3) Goods included in inventory at cost $18,000 were sold in January 2006 for $13,500. Selling expenses were


(4) $8,000 of trade receivables are to be written off.

(5) The allowance for receivables is to be adjusted to the equivalent of 5% of the trade receivables after allowing for

the above matters, based on past experience.


(a) Prepare a statement showing the effect of the adjustments on the company’s net profit for the year ended

31 December 2005. (5 marks)


(c) (i) Explain the capital gains tax (CGT) implications of a takeover where the consideration is in the form. of

shares (a ‘paper for paper’ transaction) stating any conditions that need to be satisfied. (4 marks)

(c) (i) Paper for paper rules
The proposed transaction broadly falls under the ‘paper for paper’ rules. Where this is the case, chargeable gains do not
arise. Instead, the new holding stands in the shoes (and inherits the base cost) of the original holding.
The company issuing the new shares must:
(i) end up with more than 25% of the ordinary share capital (or a majority of the voting power) of the old company,
(ii) make a general offer to shareholders in the other company with a condition that, if satisfied, would give the
acquiring company control of the other company.
The exchange must be for bona fide commercial reasons and must not have as its main purpose (or one of its main
purposes) the avoidance of CGT or corporation tax. The acquiring company can obtain advance clearance from the
Inland Revenue that the conditions will be met.
If part of the offer consideration is in the form. of cash, a gain must be calculated using the part disposal rules. If the
cash received is not more than the higher of £3,000 or 5% of the total value on takeover, then the amount received in
cash can be deducted from the base cost of the securities under the small distribution rules.

2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第3辑

(iii) Lateral or horizontal. (3 marks)

(iii) Lateral or horizontal. Traditional communication assumes a hierarchical structure with only vertical communication,however horizontal communication has become important and necessary in less formal organisations. It takes the form. of coordination with departmental managers or supervisors meeting regularly, problem solving with department members meeting to resolve an issue or information sharing and it also describes interdepartmental sharing of ideas or conflict resolution where there is a need to resolve interdepartmental friction.

(d) Explain how Gloria would be taxed in the UK on the dividends paid by Bubble Inc and the capital gains tax

and inheritance tax implications of a future disposal of the shares. Clearly state, giving reasons, whether or

not the payment made to Eric is allowable for capital gains tax purposes. (9 marks)

You should assume that the rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

(d) UK tax implications of shares in Bubble Inc
Income tax
Gloria is UK resident and is therefore subject to income tax on her worldwide income. However, because she is non-UK
domiciled, she will only be taxed on the foreign dividends she brings into the UK.
Dividends brought into the UK will be grossed up for any tax paid in Oceania. The gross amount is taxed at 10% if it falls
into the starting or basic rate band and at 321/2% if it falls into the higher rate band. The tax suffered in Oceania is available
for offset against the UK tax liability. The offset is restricted to a maximum of the UK tax on the dividend income.
Capital gains tax
Individuals are subject to capital gains tax on worldwide assets if they are resident or ordinarily resident in the UK. However,
because Gloria is non-UK domiciled and the shares are situated abroad, the gain is only taxable to the extent that the sales
proceeds are brought into the UK. Any tax suffered in Oceania in respect of the gain is available for offset against the UK
capital gains tax liability arising on the shares.
Any loss arising on the disposal of the shares would not be available for relief in the UK.
In computing a capital gain or allowable loss, a deduction is available for the incidental costs of acquisition. However, to be
allowable, such costs must be incurred wholly and exclusively for the purposes of acquiring the asset. The fee paid to Eric
related to general investment advice and not to the acquisition of the shares and therefore, would not be deductible in
computing the gain.
Taper relief will be at non-business asset rates as Bubble Inc is an investment company.
Inheritance tax
Assets situated abroad owned by non-UK domiciled individuals are excluded property for the purposes of inheritance tax.
However, Gloria will be deemed to be UK domiciled (for the purposes of inheritance tax only) if she has been resident in the
UK for 17 out of the 20 tax years ending with the year in which the disposal occurs.
Gloria has been running a business in the UK since June 1992 and would therefore, appear to have been resident for at least
15 tax years (1992/93 to 2006/07 inclusive).
If Gloria is deemed to be UK domiciled such that the shares in Bubble Inc are not excluded property, business property relief
will not be available because Bubble Inc is an investment company.

4 David Silvester is the founder and owner of a recently formed gift packaging company, Gift Designs Ltd. David has

spotted an opportunity for a new type of gift packaging. This uses a new process to make waterproof cardboard and

then shapes and cuts the card in such a way to produce a container or vase for holding cut flowers. The containers

can be stored flat and in bulk and then simply squeezed to create the flowerpot into which flowers and water are then

put. The potential market for the product is huge. In the UK hospitals alone there are 200,000 bunches of flowers

bought each year for patients. David’s innovative product does away with the need for hospitals to provide and store

glass vases. The paper vases are simple, safe and hygienic. He has also identified two other potential markets; firstly,

the market for fresh flowers supplied by florists and secondly, the corporate gift market where clients such as car

dealers present a new owner with an expensive bunch of flowers when the customer takes delivery of a new car. The

vase can be printed using a customer’s design and logo and creates an opportunity for real differentiation and impact

at sales conferences and other high profile PR events.

David anticipates a rapid growth in Gift Designs as its products become known and appreciated. The key question is

how quickly the company should grow and the types of funding needed to support its growth and development. The

initial financial demands of the business have been quite modest but David has estimated that the business needs

£500K to support its development over the next two years and is uncertain as to the types of funding best suited to

a new business as it looks to grow rapidly. He understands that business risk and financial risk is not the same thing

and is looking for advice on how he should organise the funding of the business. He is also aware of the need to avoid

reliance on friends and family for funding and to broaden the financial support for the business. Clearly the funding

required would also be affected by the activities David decides to carry out himself and those activities better provided

by external suppliers.


(a) Provide David with a short report on the key issues he should take into account when developing a strategy

for funding Gift Designs’ growth and development. (10 marks)


(a) To: David Silvester
Funding strategy for Gift Designs Ltd
Clearly, you have identified a real business opportunity and face both business and financial risks in turning the opportunity
into reality. One possible model you can use is that of the product life cycle which as a one-product firm is effectively the life
cycle for the company. Linking business risk to financial risk is important – in the early stages of the business the business
risk is high and the high death rate amongst new start-ups is well publicised and, consequently, there is a need to go for low
financial risk. Funding the business is essentially deciding the balance between debt and equity finance, and equity offers the
low risk that you should be looking for. As the firm grows and develops so the balance between debt and equity will change.
A new business venture like this could in Boston Box terms be seen as a problem child with a non-existent market share but
high growth potential. The business risks are very high and consequently the financial risks taken should be very low and
avoid taking on large amounts of debt with a commitment to service the debt.
You need to take advantage of investors who are willing to accept the risks associated with a business start-up – venture
capitalists and business angels accept the risks associated with putting equity capital in but may expect a significant share
in the ownership of the business. This they will seek to realise once the business is successfully established. As the business
moves into growth and then maturity so the business risks will reduce and access to debt finance becomes feasible and cost
effective. In maturity the business should be able to generate significant retained earnings to finance further development.

Dividend policy will also be affected by the stage in the life cycle that the business has reached.

(a) Contrast the role of internal and external auditors. (8 marks)

(b) Conoy Co designs and manufactures luxury motor vehicles. The company employs 2,500 staff and consistently makes a net profit of between 10% and 15% of sales. Conoy Co is not listed; its shares are held by 15 individuals, most of them from the same family. The maximum shareholding is 15% of the share capital.

The executive directors are drawn mainly from the shareholders. There are no non-executive directors because the company legislation in Conoy Co’s jurisdiction does not require any. The executive directors are very successful in running Conoy Co, partly from their training in production and management techniques, and partly from their ‘hands-on’ approach providing motivation to employees.

The board are considering a significant expansion of the company. However, the company’s bankers are

concerned with the standard of financial reporting as the financial director (FD) has recently left Conoy Co. The board are delaying provision of additional financial information until a new FD is appointed.

Conoy Co does have an internal audit department, although the chief internal auditor frequently comments that the board of Conoy Co do not understand his reports or provide sufficient support for his department or the internal control systems within Conoy Co. The board of Conoy Co concur with this view. Anders & Co, the external auditors have also expressed concern in this area and the fact that the internal audit department focuses work on control systems, not financial reporting. Anders & Co are appointed by and report to the board of Conoy Co.

The board of Conoy Co are considering a proposal from the chief internal auditor to establish an audit committee.

The committee would consist of one executive director, the chief internal auditor as well as three new appointees.

One appointee would have a non-executive seat on the board of directors.


Discuss the benefits to Conoy Co of forming an audit committee. (12 marks)


(ii) Briefly discuss FOUR non-financial factors which might influence the above decision. (4 marks)

(ii) Four factors that could be considered are as follows:
(i) The quality of the service provided by NSC as evidenced by, for example, the comfort of the ferries, on-board
facilities, friendliness and responsiveness of staff.
(ii) The health and safety track record of NSC – passenger safety is a ‘must’ in such operations.
(iii) The reliability, timeliness and dependability of NSC as a service provider.
(iv) The potential loss of image due to redundancies within Wonderland plc.

(ii) Upwards; (3 marks)

(ii) Upwards communication is generally non-directive in nature and often takes two forms: personal problems or suggestions and/or technical feedback as part of the organisation’s control system.

(ii) Service quality; and (7 marks)

(ii) Quality of service is the totality of features and characteristics of the service package that bear upon its ability to satisfy
client needs. To some extent the number of complaints and the need to provide non-chargeable consultations associated
with the remedying of those complaints is indicative of a service quality problem that must be addressed. Hence this
problem needs to be investigated at the earliest opportunity. Assuming consultants could have otherwise undertaken
chargeable work, the revenue foregone as a consequence of the remedial consultations relating to commercial work
amounted to (180 x £1500) = £27,000. Client complaints received by HLP during the year amounted to 1·24% of
consultations undertaken by commercial advisors whereas none were budgeted. In contrast, competitor MAS received
135 complaints which coincided with the number of non-chargeable consultations undertaken by them. This may
indicate that MAS operate a policy of a remedial consultation in respect of all complaints received from clients.
With regard to the number of on-time consultations, HLP only achieved an on-time consultation percentage of 94·4%
which is far inferior to that of 99% achieved by competitor MAS. Also, HLP re-scheduled the appointment times of
1,620 (3%) of its total consultations whereas competitor MAS only re-scheduled 0·5% of its consultation times. The
percentage number of successful consultations provided by HLP and MAS was 85% and 95% respectively which
indicates that competitor MAS possesses a superior skills-base to that of HLP.
The most alarming statistic lies in the fact that HLP was subject to three successful legal actions for negligence. This
may not only account for the 150% increase in the cost of professional indemnity insurance premiums but may also
result in a loss of client confidence and precipitate a considerable fall in future levels of business should the claims
become much publicised.

2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第4辑

(b) Advise Sergio on the appropriateness of investing in a domestic rental property in view of his personal

circumstances and recommend suitable alternative investments giving reasons for your advice. (4 marks)

(b) Sergio’s investments
Sergio aims to leave a substantial asset to his family on his death. Accordingly, in view of his age, he is right to be considering
investing in an asset whose value is unlikely to fall suddenly, such as a domestic rental property. However, it must be
recognised that although the value of land and buildings can usually be relied on to increase over a long period of time, its
value may fall over a shorter period. The only investments that cannot fall in value are cash deposits, although they do, of
course, fall in real terms due to the effects of inflation.
Sergio should consider whether or not he wishes to increase his annual income. The return on capital invested in a domestic
rental property is unlikely to be very high due to the recent increases in property values in the UK. Also, there are likely to be
periods when the house is unoccupied during which no income will be generated. If it is important to Sergio to generate
additional income he should consider other low-risk investments with a more reliable and higher rate of return, for example,
gilt edged stocks, unit trusts and cash deposits.
Sergio must also decide whether it is important to him to be able to access capital quickly, as it is usually not possible to
realise the capital invested in land and buildings at short notice. If this is important, Sergio should consider holding some of
his capital in cash deposits or other liquid investments, eg unit trusts.
Sergio could invest up to £7,000 each year in an individual savings account (ISA). A maximum of £3,000 can be held as a
cash deposit with the balance invested in quoted shares. The income and gains arising on the funds invested would be
exempt from both income tax and capital gains tax. This would be a relatively low-risk investment and would also be
accessible quickly if required.

(b) Calculate the corporation tax (CT) liabilities for Alantech Ltd, Boron Ltd and Bubble Ltd for the year ending

31 December 2004 on the assumption that loss reliefs are taken as early as possible. (9 marks)


(b) Schedule D Case I calculation
The three companies form. a group for both group relief and capital gains purposes as all shareholdings pass the 75%
ownership test. The calculation of the corporation tax liabilities is as follows:

3 The directors of The Healthy Eating Group (HEG), a successful restaurant chain, which commenced trading in 1998,

have decided to enter the sandwich market in Homeland, its country of operation. It has set up a separate operation

under the name of Healthy Sandwiches Co (HSC). A management team for HSC has been recruited via a recruitment

consultancy which specialises in food sector appointments. Homeland has very high unemployment and the vast

majority of its workforce has no experience in a food manufacturing environment. HSC will commence trading on

1 January 2008.

The following information is available:

(1) HSC has agreed to make and supply sandwiches to agreed recipes for the Superior Food Group (SFG) which

owns a chain of supermarkets in all towns and cities within Homeland. SFG insists that it selects the suppliers

of the ingredients that are used in making the sandwiches it sells and therefore HSC would be unable to reduce

the costs of the ingredients used in the sandwiches. HSC will be the sole supplier for SFG.

(2) The number of sandwiches sold per year in Homeland is 625 million. SFG has a market share of 4%.

(3) The average selling price of all sandwiches sold by SFG is $2·40. SFG wishes to make a mark-up of 331/3% on

all sandwiches sold. 90% of all sandwiches sold by SFG are sold before 2 pm each day. The majority of the

remaining 10% are sold after 8 pm. It is the intention that all sandwiches are sold on the day that they are

delivered into SFG’s supermarkets.

(4) The finance director of HSC has estimated that the average cost of ingredients per sandwich is $0·70. All

sandwiches are made by hand.

(5) Packaging and labelling costs amount to $0·15 per sandwich.

(6) Fixed overheads have been estimated to amount to $5,401,000 per annum. Note that fixed overheads include

all wages and salaries costs as all employees are subject to fixed term employment contracts.

(7) Distribution costs are expected to amount to 8% of HSC’s revenue.

(8) The finance director of HSC has stated that he believes the target sales margin of 32% can be achieved, although

he is concerned about the effect that an increase in the cost of all ingredients would have on the forecast profits

(assuming that all other revenue/cost data remains unchanged).

(9) The existing management information system of HEG was purchased at the time that HEG commenced trading.

The directors are now considering investing in an enterprise resource planning system (ERPS).


(a) Using only the above information, show how the finance director of HSC reached his conclusion regarding

the expected sales margin and also state whether he was correct to be concerned about an increase in the

price of ingredients. (5 marks)



(d) Explain how Gloria would be taxed in the UK on the dividends paid by Bubble Inc and the capital gains tax

and inheritance tax implications of a future disposal of the shares. Clearly state, giving reasons, whether or

not the payment made to Eric is allowable for capital gains tax purposes. (9 marks)

You should assume that the rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

(d) UK tax implications of shares in Bubble Inc
Income tax
Gloria is UK resident and is therefore subject to income tax on her worldwide income. However, because she is non-UK
domiciled, she will only be taxed on the foreign dividends she brings into the UK.
Dividends brought into the UK will be grossed up for any tax paid in Oceania. The gross amount is taxed at 10% if it falls
into the starting or basic rate band and at 321/2% if it falls into the higher rate band. The tax suffered in Oceania is available
for offset against the UK tax liability. The offset is restricted to a maximum of the UK tax on the dividend income.
Capital gains tax
Individuals are subject to capital gains tax on worldwide assets if they are resident or ordinarily resident in the UK. However,
because Gloria is non-UK domiciled and the shares are situated abroad, the gain is only taxable to the extent that the sales
proceeds are brought into the UK. Any tax suffered in Oceania in respect of the gain is available for offset against the UK
capital gains tax liability arising on the shares.
Any loss arising on the disposal of the shares would not be available for relief in the UK.
In computing a capital gain or allowable loss, a deduction is available for the incidental costs of acquisition. However, to be
allowable, such costs must be incurred wholly and exclusively for the purposes of acquiring the asset. The fee paid to Eric
related to general investment advice and not to the acquisition of the shares and therefore, would not be deductible in
computing the gain.
Taper relief will be at non-business asset rates as Bubble Inc is an investment company.
Inheritance tax
Assets situated abroad owned by non-UK domiciled individuals are excluded property for the purposes of inheritance tax.
However, Gloria will be deemed to be UK domiciled (for the purposes of inheritance tax only) if she has been resident in the
UK for 17 out of the 20 tax years ending with the year in which the disposal occurs.
Gloria has been running a business in the UK since June 1992 and would therefore, appear to have been resident for at least
15 tax years (1992/93 to 2006/07 inclusive).
If Gloria is deemed to be UK domiciled such that the shares in Bubble Inc are not excluded property, business property relief
will not be available because Bubble Inc is an investment company.

(c) Discuss the practical problems that may be encountered in the implementation of an activity-based system

of product cost management. (5 marks)

(c) The benefits of an activity-based system as the basis for product cost/profit estimation may not be straightforward. A number
of problems may be identified.
The selection of relevant activities and cost drivers may be complicated where there are many activities and cost drivers in
complex business situations.
There may be difficulty in the collection of data to enable accurate cost driver rates to be calculated. This is also likely to
require an extensive data collection and analysis system.
The problem of ‘cost driver denominator level’ may also prove difficult. This is similar to the problem in a traditional volume
related system. This is linked to the problem of fixed/variable cost analysis. For example the cost per batch may be fixed. Its
impact may be reduced, however, where the batch size can be increased without a proportionate increase in cost.
The achievement of the required level of management skill and commitment to change may also detract from the
implementation of the new system. Management may feel that the activity based approach contains too many assumptions
and estimates about activities and cost drivers. There may be doubt as to the degree of increased accuracy which it provides.
(alternative relevant examples and discussion would be acceptable)

(b) GHG has always used local labour to build and subsequently operate hotels. The directors of GHG are again

considering employing a local workforce not only to build the hotel but also to operate it on a daily basis.


Explain TWO ways in which the possibility of cultural differences might impact on the performance of a local

workforce in building and operating a hotel in Tomorrowland. (6 marks)

(b) The directors of GHG should be mindful that the effectiveness of a locally employed workforce within Tomorrowland will be
influenced by a number of factors including the following:
The availability of local skills
If Tomorrowland is a lower wage economy it is quite conceivable that a sufficient number of employees possessing the
requisite skills to undertake the construction of a large hotel cannot be found. If there are insufficient local resources then this
would necessitate the training of employees in all aspects of building construction. This will incur significant costs and time
and needs to be reflected in any proposed timetable for construction of the hotel. As far as the operation of the hotel is
concerned then staff will have to be recruited and trained which will again give rise to significant start-up costs. However, this
should not present the directors of GHG with such a major problem as that of training construction staff. Indeed, it is highly
probable that GHG would use its own staff in order to train new recruits.
Attitudes to work
The prevailing culture within Tomorrowland will have a profound impact on attitudes to work of its population. Attitudes to
hours of work, timekeeping and absenteeism vary from culture to culture. For example, as regards hours of work in the
construction industry in countries which experience very hot climates, work is often suspended during the hottest part of each
day and recommenced several hours later when temperatures are much cooler. The directors of GHG need to recognise that
climatic conditions not only affect the design of a building but also its construction.
A potentially sensitive issue within regarding the use of local labour in the construction of the hotel lies in the fact that national
holidays and especially religious holidays need to be observed and taken into consideration in any proposed timetable for
construction of the hotel. As regards the operation of a hotel then consideration needs to be given to the different cultures
from which the guests come. For example, this will require a detailed consideration of menus to be offered. However, it might
well be the case that the local population might be unwilling to prepare dishes comprising ingredients which are unacceptable
to their culture due to, for example, religious beliefs.
(Note: other relevant factors would be acceptable.)

2 Misson, a public limited company, has carried out transactions denominated in foreign currency during the financial

year ended 31 October 2006 and has conducted foreign operations through a foreign entity. Its functional and

presentation currency is the dollar. A summary of the foreign currency activities is set out below:

(a) Misson has a 100% owned foreign subsidiary, Chong, which was formed on 1 November 2004 with a share

capital of 100 million euros which has been taken as the cost of the investment. The total shareholders’ equity

of the subsidiary as at 31 October 2005 and 31 October 2006 was 140 million euros and 160 million euros

respectively. Chong has not paid any dividends to Misson and has no other reserves than retained earnings in its

financial statements. The subsidiary was sold on 31 October 2006 for 195 million euros.

Misson would like to know how to treat the sale of the subsidiary in the parent and group accounts for the year

ended 31 October 2006. (8 marks)


Discuss the accounting treatment of the above transactions in accordance with the advice required by the


(Candidates should show detailed workings as well as a discussion of the accounting treatment used.)


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第5辑

6 Discuss how developments in each of the following areas has affected the scope of the audit and the audit work


(a) fair value accounting; (6 marks)

General comments
Tutorial note: The following comments, that could be made in respect of any of the three areas of development, will be given
credit only once.
■ Audit scope – the scope of a statutory audit should be as necessary to form. an audit opinion (i.e. unlimited).
■ Audit work undertaken – the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures should be as necessary to implement the overall
audit plan.
(a) Fair value accounting
■ Different definitions of fair value exist (among financial reporting frameworks or for different assets and liabilities within
a particular framework). For example, under IFRS it is ‘the amount for which an asset could be exchanged (or a liability
settled) between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction’.
■ The term ‘fair value accounting’ is used to describe the measurement and disclosure of assets and/or liabilities at fair
value and the charging to profit and loss (or directly to equity) of any changes in fair value measurements.
■ Fair value accounting concerns measurements and disclosures but not initial recognition of assets and liabilities in
financial statements. It does not then, for example, affect the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures to confirm
the existence and completeness of rights and obligations.
■ Fair value may be determined with varying degrees of subjectivity. For example, there will be little (if any) subjectivity
for assets bought and sold in active and open markets that readily provide reliable information on the prices at which
exchange transactions occur. However, the valuation of assets with unique characteristics (or entity-specific assets) often
requires the projection and discounting of future cash flows.
■ The audit of estimates of fair values based on valuation models/techniques can be approached like other accounting
estimates (in accordance with ISA 540 ‘Audit of Accounting Estimates’). However, although the auditor should be able
to review and test the process used by management to develop the estimate, there may be:
? a much greater need for an independent estimate (and hence greater reliance on the work of experts in accordance
with ISA 620);
? no suitable subsequent events to confirm the estimate made (e.g. for assets that are held for use and not for
Tutorial note: Consider, for example, how the audit of ‘in-process research and development’ might compare with that
for an allowance for slow-moving inventory.
■ Different financial reporting frameworks require or permit a variety of fair value measures and disclosures in financial
statements. They also vary in the level of guidance provided (to preparers of the financial statements – and hence their
auditors). Under IFRS, certain fair values are based on management intent and ‘reasonable supportable assumptions’.
■ The audit of management intent potentially increases the auditor’s reliance on management representations. The auditor
must obtain such representations from the highest level of management and exercise an appropriate degree of
professional scepticism, being particularly alert to the implications of any conflicting evidence.
■ A significant development in international financial reporting is that it is no longer sufficient to report transactions and
past and future events that may only be possible. IAS 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ (Revised) requires that
key assumptions (and other key sources of estimation uncertainty) be disclosed. This requirement gives rise to yet
another area on which auditors may qualify their audit opinion, on grounds of disagreement, where such disclosure is
incorrect or inadequate.
■ Perhaps one of the most significant impacts of fair value accounting on audit work is that it necessarily increases it.
Consider for example, that even where the fair value of an asset is as easily vouched as original cost, fair value is
determined at least annually whereas historic cost is unchanged (and not re-vouched to original purchase

(ii) Construct the argument against Professor West’s opinion, and in favour of Professor Leroi’s opinion that

a principles-based approach would be preferable in developing countries. Your answer should consider

the particular situations of developing countries. (10 marks)

(ii) Principles-based approach
Advantages of a principles-based approach
The rigour with which governance systems are applied can be varied according to size, situation, stage of development
of business, etc. Organisations (in legal terms) have a choice to the extent to which they wish to comply, although they
will usually have to ‘comply or explain’. Explanations are more accepted by shareholders and stock markets for smaller
Obeying the spirit of the law is better than ‘box ticking’ (‘sort of business you are’ rather than ‘obeying rules’). Being
aware of overall responsibilities is more important than going through a compliance exercise merely to demonstrate
Avoids the ‘regulation overload’ of rules based (and associated increased business costs). The costs of compliance have
been a cause of considerable concern in the United States.
Self-regulation (e.g. by Financial Services Authority in the UK) rather than legal control has proven itself to underpin
investor confidence in several jurisdictions and the mechanisms are self-tightening (quicker and cheaper than legislation)
if initial public offering (IPO) volumes fall or capital flows elsewhere.
Context of developing countries
Developing countries’ economies tend to be dominated by small and medium sized organisations (SMEs). It would be
very costly and probably futile, to attempt to burden small businesses with regulatory requirements comparable to larger
Having the flexibility to ‘comply or explain’ allows for those seeking foreign equity to increase compliance whilst those
with different priorities can delay full compliance. In low-liquidity stock markets (such as those in some developing
countries) where share prices are not seen as strategically important for businesses, adopting a more flexible approach
might be a better use of management talent rather than ‘jumping through hoops’ to comply with legally-binding
The state needs to have an enforcement mechanism in place to deal with non-compliance and this itself represents a
cost to taxpayers and the corporate sector. Developing countries may not have the full infrastructure in place to enable
compliance (auditors, pool of NEDs, professional accountants, internal auditors, etc) and a principles-based approach
goes some way to recognise this.

(c) Temporary staff assignments. (6 marks)

(c) Temporary staff assignments
Lending staff on a temporary basis to an audit client will create the following ethical threats:
Management involvement – Assuming that the manager or senior is seconded to the finance function of the audit client, it
is likely that the individual would be in some way involved in decision making in relation to the accounting systems,
management accounts or financial statements.
Self-review – On returning to the audit firm, a seconded individual could be a member of the audit team for the client to
which they seconded. This would create a self- review threat whereby they would be unlikely to be critical of their own work
performed or decisions made. Even if the individual were not assigned to the client where they performed a temporary
assignment, the audit team assigned may tend to over rely on areas worked on by a colleague during the period of their
temporary assignment.
Familiarity – if the individual is working at the client at any time during the audit, there will be a familiarity threat, whereby
audit team members will be unlikely to sufficiently challenge, and therefore not exercise enough professional scepticism when
dealing with work performed by the seconded individual.
In addition, due to the over-staffing problem of Becker & Co, the seconded individuals may feel that if they were not on the
secondment, they could be made redundant. This may cause them to act in such as way as not to jeopardise the secondment,
even if the action were not in the best interests of the firm.
The threats discussed above are increased where a senior person likely to make significant decisions is involved with the
temporary assignment, as in this case where audit managers or seniors will be the subjects of the proposed secondment.
In practice, assistance can be provided to clients, especially in emergency situations, but only on the understanding that the
firm’s personnel will not be involved with:
– Making management decisions,
– Approving or signing agreements or similar documents, and
– Having the authority to enter into commitments on behalf of the company.
In addition, the individual seconded to a client should not then be involved in any way with the audit of that client when they
return to the audit firm. This may be a difficult area, as presumably the client would prefer to have an individual seconded
to them who has knowledge and experience of their business, i.e. a member of the audit team, and most likely in this scenario
to be the audit manager. If this were the case the manager would then have to be reassigned to a different client, causing
internal problems for the audit firm. This problem is likely to outweigh any benefits, financial or otherwise, to Becker & Co.
If the temporary staff assignment were to a non-finance department of the client then the threats would be reduced.
If Becker & Co decides to go ahead with the secondment programme, the firm must ensure that the staff are suitably
experienced and qualified to carry out the work given to them by the client. There could be a risk to the reputation of Becker
& Co if the seconded staff are not competent or do not perform. as well as expected by the client.
One advantage of a secondment is that the individual concerned can benefit from exposure to a different type of work and
work environment. This will provide some valuable insights into accounting within a business and the individual may bring
some new skills and ideas back into the audit firm.
However, the staff seconded could be offered a permanent position at the client. This would lead to the loss of key members
of staff, and be detrimental for Becker & Co in the long run.
The other benefit for the audit firm is that a programme of secondments will ease the problem of an over-staffed audit
department, and should have cash flow benefits.
Tutorial note: In answering this question it is relevant to briefly mention corporate governance implications i.e. the client may
not be able to accept the services offered by their auditor for ethical, particularly objectivity, reasons.

(b) Explain FIVE critical success factors to the performance of HSC on which the directors must focus if HSC is

to achieve success in its marketplace. (10 marks)

(b) Critical success factors are as follows:
Product quality
The fact that the production staff have no previous experience in a food production environment is likely to prove problematic.
It is vital that a comprehensive training programme is put in place at the earliest opportunity. HSC need to reach and maintain
the highest level of product quality as soon as possible.
Supply quality
The quality of delivery into SFG supermarkets assumes critical significance. Time literally will be of the essence since 90%
of all sandwiches are sold in SFG’s supermarkets before 2 pm each day. Hence supply chain management must be extremely
robust as there is very little scope for error.
Technical quality
Compliance with existing regulations regarding food production including all relevant factory health and safety requirements
is vital in order to establish and maintain the reputation of HSC as a supplier of quality products. The ability to store products
at the correct temperature is critical because sandwiches are produced for human consumption and in extreme circumstance
could cause fatalities.
External credibility
Accreditation by relevant trade associations/regulators will be essential if nationwide acceptance of HSC as a major producer
of sandwiches is to be established.
New product development
Whilst HSC have developed a range of healthy eating sandwiches it must be recognised that consumer tastes change and
that in the face of competition there will always be a need for a continuous focus on new product development.
Whilst HSC need to recognise all other critical success factors they should always be mindful that the need to obtain the
desired levels of gross and net margin remain of the utmost importance.
Notes: (i) Only five critical success factors were required.
(ii) Alternative relevant discussion and examples would be acceptable.

(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a balanced scorecard to better assess the overall

performance of Lawson Engineering? (8 marks)

(b) In many ways Lawson Engineering and its performance explains why Kaplan and Norton developed the balanced scorecard
to overcome the reliance on traditional, and they would argue flawed, financial measures of performance such as return on
capital employed (ROCE). Lawson Engineering as a privately owned company does not have the same pressure to maximise
shareholder wealth, which is the overarching long-term goal of publicly quoted companies. The intangible resources discussed
above – both internal and external – reflect the success of the company in meeting the expectations of the other key
stakeholders in the business, namely customers, employees and suppliers. In terms of the other measures of performance
used in the balanced scorecard the customer perspective seems to be very much a positive area of performance. Lawson
Engineering has developed a clear niche strategy based on the excellence of its products. Market share as a measure of
customer satisfaction is not too relevant as the company has chosen to develop its own markets and is not looking for large
volumes and a dominant market share. The growth of the company suggests that it is both retaining its existing customer
base and acquiring new ones. Clearly there need to be measures in place to show where its growth is coming from. Customer
acquisition is usually an expensive but necessary activity and cutomer retention a more positive route to profitability. Today
there is increasing emphasis on customer relationship management (CRM) and measures to show the share of a particular
customer’s business the company has, rather than the overall market share the company has achieved. Michael Porter has
drawn attention to the fact that having the biggest market share is not necessarily associated with being the most profitable
company in that market. Customer acquisition and retention are both useful indicators of customer satisfaction which many
companies have problems in measuring. Finally, knowing which customers are profitable ones is a key requirement.
Surprisingly there is a lot of evidence to suggest that many companies are unsure which of their products and which
customers actually contribute to their profits.
The third measure in the balanced scorecard is an internal one – the effectiveness or otherwise of the firm’s internal processes.
In turn there are three areas where performance should be measured – innovation, operational processes and after sales
service (where appropriate). Innovation itself is a result of effective internal processes and Lawson Engineering through its
patents and awards has tangible evidence of its success. Many firms are measuring the contribution of products introduced
in the last three or four years – 3M, a global manufacturer of consumer and industrial products looks to achieve 30% of its
sales from products that are less than four years old. Equally important in a company such as Lawson Engineering is the time
taken to develop and get new products to their customers. The strategy of being ‘first to market’ can be a very effective
competitive strategy.
Equally important for the customers are the operational processes that produce and deliver the inputs from their suppliers.
The introduction of JIT and the use of technology to shorten and simplify the links between supplier and customer are ways
of shortening lead times and increasing customer satisfaction. Lawson Engineering has looked to innovate its processes as
well as its products and can look to develop measures of key areas of operational performance. Finally it is worth stressing
that financial performance, customer satisfaction and effective internal processes are all dependent on the people who make
things happen in the firm. Employees and the way they learn and grow in their jobs will determine whether or not the firm
succeeds. Again there is evidence to suggest that Lawson Engineering’s employees are being trained and developed and as
a consequence are well motivated.
The balanced scorecard has been criticised on a number of accounts. Firstly, such a comprehensive set of performance
measures will take considerable time and commitment on the part of senior management to develop. There is a need to avoid
over-complexity and assess the costs and benefits of the process. Secondly, there is the question of whether all the key
stakeholders have shared goals and expectations and whether the measures are focused on short-, medium- or long-term
performance. Thirdly, its focus on internal and external processes may not come easily to firms that have organised themselves
on traditional lines. Most organisations have retained departments within which functional specialists are located, e.g.
production, marketing etc. Changing the way performance is measured may need a radical change in culture and meetsignificant resistance.

2 Misson, a public limited company, has carried out transactions denominated in foreign currency during the financial

year ended 31 October 2006 and has conducted foreign operations through a foreign entity. Its functional and

presentation currency is the dollar. A summary of the foreign currency activities is set out below:

(a) Misson has a 100% owned foreign subsidiary, Chong, which was formed on 1 November 2004 with a share

capital of 100 million euros which has been taken as the cost of the investment. The total shareholders’ equity

of the subsidiary as at 31 October 2005 and 31 October 2006 was 140 million euros and 160 million euros

respectively. Chong has not paid any dividends to Misson and has no other reserves than retained earnings in its

financial statements. The subsidiary was sold on 31 October 2006 for 195 million euros.

Misson would like to know how to treat the sale of the subsidiary in the parent and group accounts for the year

ended 31 October 2006. (8 marks)


Discuss the accounting treatment of the above transactions in accordance with the advice required by the


(Candidates should show detailed workings as well as a discussion of the accounting treatment used.)


19 At 30 June 2004 a company’s allowance for receivables was $39,000. At 30 June 2005 trade receivables totalled $517,000. It was decided to write off debts totalling $37,000 and to adjust the allowance for receivables to the equivalent of 5 per cent of the trade receivables based on past events.

What figure should appear in the income statement for these items?

A $61,000

B $22,000

C $24,000

D $23,850


2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第6辑

(b) Discuss the nature of the following issues in developing IFRSs for SMEs.

(i) The purpose of the standards and the type of entity to whom they should apply. (7 marks)

(b) There are several issues which need to be addressed when developing IFRSs for SMEs:
(i) The purpose of the standards and type of entity
The principal aim of the development of an accounting framework for SMEs is to provide a framework which generates
relevant, reliable and useful information. The standards should provide high quality and understandable accounting
standards suitable for SMEs globally. Additionally they should meet the needs set out in (a) above. For example reduce
the financial reporting burden for SMEs. It is unlikely that one of the objectives would be to provide information for
management or meet the needs of the tax authorities as these bodies will have specific requirements which would be
difficult to meet in an accounting standard. However, it is likely that the standards for SMEs will be a modified version
of the full IFRSs and not an independently developed set of standards in order that they are based on the same
conceptual framework and will allow easier transition to full IFRS if the SME grows or decides to become a publicly listed
It is important to define the type of entity for which the standards are intended. Companies who have issued shares to
the public would be expected to use full IFRS. The question arises as to whether SME standards should apply to all
unlisted entities or just those listed entities below a certain size threshold. The difficulty with size criteria is that it would
have to apply worldwide and it would be very difficult to specify such criteria. Additionally some unlisted companies, for
example public utilities, have a reporting obligation that is equivalent to that of a listed company and should follow full
The main characteristic which distinguishes SMEs from other entities is the degree of public accountability. Thus the
definition of what constitutes an SME could revolve around those entities that do not have public accountability.
Indicators of public accountability will have to be developed. For example, a listed company or companies holding assets
in a fiduciary capacity (bank), or a public utility, or an entity with economic significance in its country. Thus all entities
that do not have public accountability may be considered as potential users of IFRSs for SMEs.
Size may not be the best way to determine what is an SME. SMEs could be defined by reference to ownership and themanagement of the entity. SMEs are not necessarily just smaller versions of public companies.

(ii) Assuming the relief in (i) is available, advise Sharon on the maximum amount of cash she could receive

on incorporation, without triggering a capital gains tax (CGT) liability. (3 marks)

(ii) As Sharon is entitled to the full rate of business asset taper relief, any gain will be reduced by 75%. The position is
maximised where the chargeable gain equals Sharon’s unused capital gains tax annual exemption of £8,500. Thus,
before taper relief, the gain she requires is £34,000 (1/0·25 x £8,500).
The amount to be held over is therefore £46,000 (80,000 – 34,000). Where part of the consideration is in the form
of cash, the gain eligible for incorporation relief is calculated using the formula:
Gain deferred           =                    Gain x value of shares issued/total consideration
The formula is        manipulated on the following basis:
£46,000                    =                     £80,000 x (shares/120,000)
Shares/120,000     =                     £46,000/80,000
Shares                     =                     £46,000 x 120,000/80,000
i.e. £69,000.
As the total consideration is £120,000, this means that Sharon can take £51,000 (£120,000 – £69,000) in cash
without any CGT consequences.

(c) On 1 May 2007 Sirus acquired another company, Marne plc. The directors of Marne, who were the only

shareholders, were offered an increased profit share in the enlarged business for a period of two years after the

date of acquisition as an incentive to accept the purchase offer. After this period, normal remuneration levels will

be resumed. Sirus estimated that this would cost them $5 million at 30 April 2008, and a further $6 million at

30 April 2009. These amounts will be paid in cash shortly after the respective year ends. (5 marks)


Draft a report to the directors of Sirus which discusses the principles and nature of the accounting treatment of

the above elements under International Financial Reporting Standards in the financial statements for the year

ended 30 April 2008.

(c) Acquisition of Marne
All business combinations within the scope of IFRS 3 ‘Business Combinations’ must be accounted for using the purchase
method. (IFRS 3.14) The pooling of interests method is prohibited. Under IFRS 3, an acquirer must be identified for all
business combinations. (IFRS 3.17) Sirus will be identified as the acquirer of Marne and must measure the cost of a business
combination at the sum of the fair values, at the date of exchange, of assets given, liabilities incurred or assumed, in exchange
for control of Marne; plus any costs directly attributable to the combination. (IFRS 3.24) If the cost is subject to adjustment
contingent on future events, the acquirer includes the amount of that adjustment in the cost of the combination at the
acquisition date if the adjustment is probable and can be measured reliably. (IFRS 3.32) However, if the contingent payment
either is not probable or cannot be measured reliably, it is not measured as part of the initial cost of the business combination.
If that adjustment subsequently becomes probable and can be measured reliably, the additional consideration is treated as
an adjustment to the cost of the combination. (IAS 3.34) The issue with the increased profit share payable to the directors
of Marne is whether the payment constitutes remuneration or consideration for the business acquired. Because the directors
of Marne fall back to normal remuneration levels after the two year period, it appears that this additional payment will
constitute part of the purchase consideration with the resultant increase in goodwill. It seems as though these payments can
be measured reliably and therefore the cost of the acquisition should be increased by the net present value of $11 million at
1 May 2007 being $5 million discounted for 1 year and $6 million for 2 years.

(b) A recruitment service offered to clients. (7 marks)

(b) Recruitment service
IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants does not prohibit firms from offering a recruitment service to client
companies. However several ethical problems could arise if the service were offered. The severity of these problems would
depend on the exact nature of the service provided, and the role of the person recruited into the client’s organisation.
Specific ethical threats could include:
Self-interest – clearly the motive for Becker & Co to offer this service is to generate income from audit clients, thereby creating
a financial self-interest threat. The amount received for the recruitment service depends on the magnitude of the salary of the
person employed. The more senior the person recruited, the higher their salary is likely to be, and therefore the higher the
fee to be paid to Becker & Co.
In addition, the firm could be tempted to advise positively on the recruitment of an individual merely to receive the relevant
recruitment fee, without properly considering the suitability of the person for the role.
Familiarity – when performing the audit, the auditors may be less likely to criticise or challenge the work performed by a
person they helped to recruit, as any significant problems discovered may make the recruitment appear ill-advised.
Management involvement – there is also a threat that the audit firm could be perceived to be making management decisions
by selecting employees. The firm could offer services such as reviewing the professional qualifications of a number of
applicants, and providing advice on the applicant’s suitability for the post. In addition the firm could draw up a shortlist of
candidates for interview, using criteria specified by the client. However in all cases, the final decision as to whom to hire must
be made by the client, as the audit firm should not make, or be perceived to be making, management decisions.
The threats discussed above would increase in significance if the recruitee took on a role in key management pertaining to
the finance function, such as finance director or financial controller. The threats would be less severe if the audit firm advised
on the recruitment of a junior member of the client’s finance function.
If these threats could not be reduced to a level less than clearly insignificant, then the recruitment service should not be
Commercial evaluation
The firm should consider whether there is likely to be much demand for the potential service before developing such a
resource. Some form. of market research is essential.
Offering this type of service represents a significant departure from normal audit services. The firm should consider whether
there is sufficient knowledge and expertise to offer a recruitment service. Ingrid Sharapova seems to have some experience,
but her skills may be out of date, and may not be specifically relevant to the recruitment of finance professionals. It may be
that considerable training and possibly the attainment of a new professional qualification relevant to recruitment may be
necessary for a credible service to be offered to clients.
If the recruitment service proved successful, then Ingrid could be faced with too much work as she is the only person with
relevant experience, and has no one to delegate to. If the firm decides to offer this service, then one other person should
receive appropriate training, to cover for Ingrid’s holidays and any sick leave, and to provide someone for Ingrid to delegate
to. The financial cost of such training should be considered.
Finally, Becker & Co should consider the potential damage to the firm’s reputation if the service offered is not of a high quality.
If the partners decide to pursue this business opportunity, they may wish to consider setting it up as a separate entity, so that
if the business fails or its reputation is questioned, the damage to Becker & Co would be minimised.

(ii) Explain, with reasons, the relief available in respect of the fall in value of the shares in All Over plc,

identify the years in which it can be claimed and state the time limit for submitting the claim.

(3 marks)



KFP Co, a company listed on a major stock market, is looking at its cost of capital as it prepares to make a bid to buy a rival unlisted company, NGN. Both companies are in the same business sector. Financial information on KFP Co and NGN is as follows:

NGN has a cost of equity of 12% per year and has maintained a dividend payout ratio of 45% for several years. The current earnings per share of the company is 80c per share and its earnings have grown at an average rate of 4·5% per year in recent years.

The ex div share price of KFP Co is $4·20 per share and it has an equity beta of 1·2. The 7% bonds of the company are trading on an ex interest basis at $94·74 per $100 bond. The price/earnings ratio of KFP Co is eight times.

The directors of KFP Co believe a cash offer for the shares of NGN would have the best chance of success. It has been suggested that a cash offer could be financed by debt.


(a) Calculate the weighted average cost of capital of KFP Co on a market value weighted basis. (10 marks)

(b) Calculate the total value of the target company, NGN, using the following valuation methods:

(i) Price/earnings ratio method, using the price/earnings ratio of KFP Co; and

(ii) Dividend growth model. (6 marks)

(c) Discuss the relationship between capital structure and weighted average cost of capital, and comment on

the suggestion that debt could be used to finance a cash offer for NGN. (9 marks)


(c) Explanatory notes, together with relevant supporting calculations, in connection with the loan. (8 marks)

Additional marks will be awarded for the appropriateness of the format and presentation of the schedules, the

effectiveness with which the information is communicated and the extent to which the schedules are structured in

a logical manner. (3 marks)

Notes: – you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 and for the financial year

to 31 March 2007 apply throughout the question.

– you should ignore value added tax (VAT).

(c) Tax implications of there being a loan from Flores Ltd to Banda
Flores Ltd should have paid tax to HMRC equal to 25% of the loan, i.e. £5,250. The tax should have been paid on the
company’s normal due date for corporation tax in respect of the accounting period in which the loan was made, i.e. 1 April
following the end of the accounting period.
The tax is due because Flores Ltd is a close company that has made a loan to a participator and that loan is not in the ordinary
course of the company’s business.
HMRC will repay the tax when the loan is either repaid or written off.
Flores Ltd should have included the loan on Banda’s Form. P11D in order to report it to HMRC.
Banda should have paid income tax on an annual benefit equal to 5% of the amount of loan outstanding during each tax
year. Accordingly, for each full year for which the loan was outstanding, Banda should have paid income tax of £231
(£21,000 x 5% x 22%).
Interest and penalties may be charged in respect of the tax underpaid by both Flores Ltd and Banda and in respect of the
incorrect returns made to HMRC
Willingness to act for Banda
We would not wish to be associated with a client who has engaged in deliberate tax evasion as this poses a threat to the
fundamental principles of integrity and professional behaviour. Accordingly, we should refuse to act for Banda unless she is
willing to disclose the details regarding the loan to HMRC and pay the ensuing tax liabilities. Even if full disclosure is made,
we should consider whether the loan was deliberately hidden from HMRC or Banda’s previous tax adviser.
In addition, companies are prohibited from making loans to directors under the Companies Act. We should advise Banda to
seek legal advice on her own position and that of Flores Ltd.

2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第7辑

3 (a) Financial statements often contain material balances recognised at fair value. For auditors, this leads to additional

audit risk.


Discuss this statement. (7 marks)

3 Poppy Co
(a) Balances held at fair value are frequently recognised as material items in the statement of financial position. Sometimes it is
required by the financial reporting framework that the measurement of an asset or liability is at fair value, e.g. certain
categories of financial instruments, whereas it is sometimes the entity’s choice to measure an item using a fair value model
rather than a cost model, e.g. properties. It is certainly the case that many of these balances will be material, meaning that
the auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate evidence that the fair value measurement is in accordance with the
requirements of financial reporting standards. ISA 540 (Revised and Redrafted) Auditing Accounting Estimates Including Fair
Value Accounting Estimates and Related Disclosures and ISA 545 Auditing Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
contain guidance in this area.
As part of the understanding of the entity and its environment, the auditor should gain an insight into balances that are stated
at fair value, and then assess the impact of this on the audit strategy. This will include an evaluation of the risk associated
with the balance(s) recognised at fair value.
Audit risk comprises three elements; each is discussed below in the context of whether material balances shown at fair value
will lead to increased risk for the auditor.
Inherent risk
Many measurements based on estimates, including fair value measurements, are inherently imprecise and subjective in
nature. The fair value assessment is likely to involve significant judgments, e.g. regarding market conditions, the timing of
cash flows, or the future intentions of the entity. In addition, there may be a deliberate attempt by management to manipulate
the fair value to achieve a desired aim within the financial statements, in other words to attempt some kind of window
Many fair value estimation models are complicated, e.g. discounted cash flow techniques, or the actuarial calculations used
to determine the value of a pension fund. Any complicated calculations are relatively high risk, as difficult valuation techniques
are simply more likely to contain errors than simple valuation techniques. However, there will be some items shown at fair
value which have a low inherent risk, because the measurement of fair value may be relatively straightforward, e.g. assets
that are regularly bought and sold on open markets that provide readily available and reliable information on the market prices
at which actual exchanges occur.
In addition to the complexities discussed above, some fair value measurement techniques will contain significant
assumptions, e.g. the most appropriate discount factor to use, or judgments over the future use of an asset. Management
may not always have sufficient experience and knowledge in making these judgments.
Thus the auditor should approach some balances recognised at fair value as having a relatively high inherent risk, as their
subjective and complex nature means that the balance is prone to contain an error. However, the auditor should not just
assume that all fair value items contain high inherent risk – each balance recognised at fair value should be assessed for its
individual level of risk.
Control risk
The risk that the entity’s internal monitoring system fails to prevent and detect valuation errors needs to be assessed as part
of overall audit risk assessment. One problem is that the fair value assessment is likely to be performed once a year, outside
the normal accounting and management systems, especially where the valuation is performed by an external specialist.
Therefore, as a non-routine event, the assessment of fair value is likely not to have the same level of monitoring or controls
as a day-to-day business transaction.
However, due to the material impact of fair values on the statement of financial position, and in some circumstances on profit,
management may have made great effort to ensure that the assessment is highly monitored and controlled. It therefore could
be the case that there is extremely low control risk associated with the recognition of fair values.
Detection risk
The auditor should minimise detection risk via thorough planning and execution of audit procedures. The audit team may
lack experience in dealing with the fair value in question, and so would be unlikely to detect errors in the valuation techniques
used. Over-reliance on an external specialist could also lead to errors not being found.
It is true that the increasing recognition of items measured at fair value will in many cases cause the auditor to assess the
audit risk associated with the balance as high. However, it should not be assumed that every fair value item will be likely to
contain a material misstatement. The auditor must be careful to identify and respond to the level of risk for fair value items
on an individual basis to ensure that sufficient and appropriate evidence is gathered, thus reducing the audit risk to an
acceptable level.

2 (a) Discuss the nature of the financial objectives that may be set in a not-for-profit organisation such as a charity

or a hospital. (8 marks)


2 (a) In the case of a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation, the limit on the services that can be provided is the amount of funds that
are available in a given period. A key financial objective for an NFP organisation such as a charity is therefore to raise as
much funds as possible. The fund-raising efforts of a charity may be directed towards the public or to grant-making bodies.
In addition, a charity may have income from investments made from surplus funds from previous periods. In any period,
however, a charity is likely to know from previous experience the amount and timing of the funds available for use. The same
is true for an NFP organisation funded by the government, such as a hospital, since such an organisation will operate under
budget constraints or cash limits. Whether funded by the government or not, NFP organisations will therefore have the
financial objective of keeping spending within budget, and budgets will play an important role in controlling spending and in
specifying the level of services or programmes it is planned to provide.
Since the amount of funding available is limited, NFP organisations will seek to generate the maximum benefit from available
funds. They will obtain resources for use by the organisation as economically as possible: they will employ these resources
efficiently, minimising waste and cutting back on any activities that do not assist in achieving the organisation’s non-financial
objectives; and they will ensure that their operations are directed as effectively as possible towards meeting their objectives.
The goals of economy, efficiency and effectiveness are collectively referred to as value for money (VFM). Economy is
concerned with minimising the input costs for a given level of output. Efficiency is concerned with maximising the outputs
obtained from a given level of input resources, i.e. with the process of transforming economic resources into desires services.
Effectiveness is concerned with the extent to which non-financial organisational goals are achieved.
Measuring the achievement of the financial objective of VFM is difficult because the non-financial goals of NFP organisations
are not quantifiable and so not directly measurable. However, current performance can be compared to historic performance
to ascertain the extent to which positive change has occurred. The availability of the healthcare provided by a hospital, for
example, can be measured by the time that patients have to wait for treatment or for an operation, and waiting times can be
compared year on year to determine the extent to which improvements have been achieved or publicised targets have been

Lacking a profit motive, NFP organisations will have financial objectives that relate to the effective use of resources, such as
achieving a target return on capital employed. In an organisation funded by the government from finance raised through
taxation or public sector borrowing, this financial objective will be centrally imposed.

(b) Prepare a consolidated statement of financial position of the Ribby Group at 31 May 2008 in accordance

with International Financial Reporting Standards. (35 marks)


(c) Describe the purposes for which a person specification might be used. (4 marks)

Part (c):
The person specification might be used for a number of purposes:
In recruitment, to provide an illustration of the type of candidate sought prior to the selection stage.
In selection, the most obvious and popular use of this document, is to assess whether an individual’s personality, abilities and
experience match the organisation’s requirements.
For promotion, to evaluate whether an individual has the necessary ability and personality to move within the organisation.
In evaluation of performance to assess whether the person has demonstrated the necessary skills to do the job effectively.
In disciplinary procedures through demonstrating that the person specification required to do a particular job for which some one
was appointed are not evident or being applied. For example, where an employee required to be discrete is discovered to have
disclosed confidential information to third parties.

(ii) Explain how the inclusion of rental income in Coral’s UK income tax computation could affect the

income tax due on her dividend income. (2 marks)

You are not required to prepare calculations for part (b) of this question.

Note: you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 and for the financial year to

31 March 2007 will continue to apply for the foreseeable future.

(ii) The effect of taxable rental income on the tax due on Coral’s dividend income
Remitting rental income to the UK may cause some of Coral’s dividend income currently falling within the basic rate
band to fall within the higher rate band. The effect of this would be to increase the tax on the gross dividend income
from 0% (10% less the 10% tax credit) to 221/2% (321/2% less 10%).
Tutorial note
It would be equally acceptable to state that the effective rate of tax on the dividend income would increase from 0%
to 25%.

Following a competitive tender, your audit firm Cal & Co has just gained a new audit client Tirrol Co. You are the manager in charge of planning the audit work. Tirrol Co’s year end is 30 June 2009 with a scheduled date to complete the audit of 15 August 2009. The date now is 3 June 2009.

Tirrol Co provides repair services to motor vehicles from 25 different locations. All inventory, sales and purchasing systems are computerised, with each location maintaining its own computer system. The software in each location is

the same because the programs were written specifically for Tirrol Co by a reputable software house. Data from each location is amalgamated on a monthly basis at Tirrol Co’s head office to produce management and financial accounts.

You are currently planning your audit approach for Tirrol Co. One option being considered is to re-write Cal & Co’s audit software to interrogate the computerised inventory systems in each location of Tirrol Co (except for head office)

as part of inventory valuation testing. However, you have also been informed that any computer testing will have to be on a live basis and you are aware that July is a major holiday period for your audit firm.


(a) (i) Explain the benefits of using audit software in the audit of Tirrol Co; (4 marks)

(ii) Explain the problems that may be encountered in the audit of Tirrol Co and for each problem, explain

how that problem could be overcome. (10 marks)

(b) Following a discussion with the management at Tirrol Co you now understand that the internal audit department are prepared to assist with the statutory audit. Specifically, the chief internal auditor is prepared to provide you with documentation on the computerised inventory systems at Tirrol Co. The documentation provides details of the software and shows diagrammatically how transactions are processed through the inventory system. This documentation can be used to significantly decrease the time needed to understand the computer systems and enable audit software to be written for this year’s audit.


Explain how you will evaluate the computer systems documentation produced by the internal audit

department in order to place reliance on it during your audit. (6 marks)


(c) The inheritance tax payable by Adam in respect of the gift from his aunt. (4 marks)

Additional marks will be awarded for the appropriateness of the format and presentation of the memorandum and

the effectiveness with which the information is communicated. (2 marks)

Note: you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 will continue to apply for the

foreseeable future.

(c) Inheritance tax payable by Adam
The gift by AS’s aunt was a potentially exempt transfer. No tax will be due if she lives until 1 June 2014 (seven years after
the date of the gift).
The maximum possible liability, on the assumption that there are no annual exemptions or nil band available, is £35,216
(£88,040 x 40%). This will only arise if AS’s aunt dies before 1 June 2010.
The maximum liability will be reduced by taper relief of 20% for every full year after 31 May 2010 for which AS’s aunt lives.
The liability will also be reduced if the chargeable transfers made by the aunt in the seven years prior to 1 June 2007 are
less than £285,000 or if the annual exemption for 2006/07 and/or 2007/08 is/are available.

2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第8辑

(c) Calculate the expected corporation tax liability of Dovedale Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2007 on the

assumption that all available reliefs are claimed by Dovedale Ltd but that Hira Ltd will not claim any capital

allowances in that year. (4 marks)



(ii) Explain whether or not Carver Ltd will become a close investment-holding company as a result of

acquiring either the office building or the share portfolio and state the relevance of becoming such a

company. (2 marks)

(ii) Close investment holding company status
Carver Ltd will not become a close investment-holding company if it purchases the office building as, although it will no
longer be a trading company, it intends to rent out the building to a number of tenants none of whom is connected to
the company.
Carver Ltd will become a close investment holding company if it purchases a portfolio of quoted shares as it will no
longer be a trading company. As a result it will pay corporation tax at the full rate of 30% regardless of the level of its

(b) On 31 May 2007, Leigh purchased property, plant and equipment for $4 million. The supplier has agreed to

accept payment for the property, plant and equipment either in cash or in shares. The supplier can either choose

1·5 million shares of the company to be issued in six months time or to receive a cash payment in three months

time equivalent to the market value of 1·3 million shares. It is estimated that the share price will be $3·50 in

three months time and $4 in six months time.

Additionally, at 31 May 2007, one of the directors recently appointed to the board has been granted the right to

choose either 50,000 shares of Leigh or receive a cash payment equal to the current value of 40,000 shares at

the settlement date. This right has been granted because of the performance of the director during the year and

is unconditional at 31 May 2007. The settlement date is 1 July 2008 and the company estimates the fair value

of the share alternative is $2·50 per share at 31 May 2007. The share price of Leigh at 31 May 2007 is $3 per

share, and if the director chooses the share alternative, they must be kept for a period of four years. (9 marks)


Discuss with suitable computations how the above share based transactions should be accounted for in the

financial statements of Leigh for the year ended 31 May 2007.


(b) Transactions that allow choice of settlement are accounted for as cash-settled to the extent that the entity has incurred a
liability (IFRS2 para 34). The share based transaction is treated as the issuance of a compound financial instrument. IFRS2
applies similar measurement principles to determine the value of the constituent parts of a compound instrument as that
required by IAS32 ‘Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation’. The purchase of the property, plant and equipment
(PPE) and the grant to the director, both fall under this section of IFRS2 as the supplier and the director have a choice of
settlement. The fair value of the goods can be measured directly as regards the purchase of the PPE and therefore this fact
determines that the transaction is treated in a certain way. In the case of the director, the fair value of the service rendered
will be determined by the fair value of the equity instruments given and IFRS2 says that this type of share based transaction
should be dealt with in a certain way. Under IFRS2, if the fair value of the goods or services received can be measured directly
and easily then the equity element is determined by taking the fair value of the goods or services less the fair value of the
debt element of this instrument. The debt element is essentially the cash payment that will occur. If the fair value of the goods
or services is measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments given then the whole of the compound
instrument should be fair valued. The equity element becomes the difference between the fair value of the equity instruments
granted less the fair value of the debt component. It should take into account the fact that the counterparty must forfeit its
right to receive cash in order to receive the equity instrument.
When Leigh received the property, plant and equipment it should have recorded a liability of $4 million and an increase in
equity of $0·55 million being the difference between the value of the property, plant and equipment and the fair value of theliability. The fair value of the liability is the cash payment of $3·50 x 1·3 million shares, i.e. $4·55 million.
The accounting entry would be:

17 Which of the following statements are correct?

(1) All non-current assets must be depreciated.

(2) If goodwill is revalued, the revaluation surplus appears in the statement of changes in equity.

(3) If a tangible non-current asset is revalued, all tangible assets of the same class should be revalued.

(4) In a company’s published balance sheet, tangible assets and intangible assets must be shown separately.

A 1 and 2

B 2 and 3

C 3 and 4

D 1 and 4


(b) (i) Discuss the main factors that should be taken into account when determining how to treat gains and

losses arising on tangible non-current assets in a single statement of financial performance. (8 marks)

(b) (i) Currently there are many rules on how gains and losses on tangible non current assets should be reported and these
have traditionally varied from country to country. The main issues revolve around the reporting of depreciation,
disposal/revaluation gains and losses, and impairment losses. The reporting of such elements should take into account
whether the tangible non current assets have been revalued or held at historical cost. The problem facing standard
setters is where to report such gains and losses.The question is whether they should be reported as part of operating
activities or as ‘other gains and losses’.
Holding gains arising on the sale of tangible non current assets could be reported separately from operating results so
that the latter is not obscured by an asset realisation that reflects more a change in market prices than any increase in
the operating activity of the entity. Other changes in the carrying amounts of tangible non current assets will be reported
as part of the operating results. For example, the depreciation charge tries to reflect the consumption of the asset by the
entity and as such is not a holding loss. There may be cases where the depreciation charge does not reflect the
consumption of economic benefits. For example, the pattern and rate of depreciation could have been misjudged
because the asset’s useful life has been assessed incorrectly. In this case, when an asset is sold any excess or shortfall
of depreciation may need to be dealt with in the operating result.
Impairment is another factor to consider in reporting gains and losses on tangible non current assets. Impairment is
effectively accelerated depreciation. Impairment arises when the carrying amount of the asset is above its recoverable
amount. It follows therefore that any impairment loss should be reported as part of the operating result. Any losses on
disposal, to the extent that they represent impairment, could therefore be reported as part of the operating results. Any
losses which represent holding losses could be reported in ‘other gains and losses’. The difficulty will be differentiating
between holding losses and impairment losses. There will have to be clear and concise definitions of these terms or it
could lead to abuse by companies in their quest to maximise operating profits.
A distinction should be made between gains and losses arising on tangible non current assets as a result of revaluations
and those arising on disposal. The nature of the gain or loss is essentially the same although the timing and certainty
of the gain/loss is different. Therefore revaluation gains/losses may be reported in the ‘other gains and losses’ section.
Where an asset has been revalued, any loss on disposal that represents an impairment would be charged to operating
results and any remaining loss reported in ‘other gains and losses’.
Essentially, gains and losses should be reported on the basis of the characteristics of the gains and losses themselves.
Gains and losses with similar characteristics should be reported together thus helping the comparability of financial
performance nationally and internationally.

(c) Identify and discuss the implications for the audit report if:

(i) the directors refuse to disclose the note; (4 marks)

(c) (i) Audit report implications
Audit procedures have shown that there is a significant level of doubt over Dexter Co’s going concern status. IAS 1
requires that disclosure is made in the financial statements regarding material uncertainties which may cast significant
doubt on the ability of the entity to continue as a going concern. If the directors refuse to disclose the note to the financial
statements, there is a clear breach of financial reporting standards.
In this case the significant uncertainty is caused by not knowing the extent of the future availability of finance needed
to fund operating activities. If the note describing this uncertainty is not provided, the financial statements are not fairly
The audit report should contain a qualified or an adverse opinion due to the disagreement. The auditors need to make
a decision as to the significance of the non-disclosure. If it is decided that without the note the financial statements are
not fairly presented, and could be considered misleading, an adverse opinion should be expressed. Alternatively, it could
be decided that the lack of the note is material, but not pervasive to the financial statements; then a qualified ‘except
for’ opinion should be expressed.
ISA 570 Going Concern and ISA 701 Modifications to the Independent Auditor’s Report provide guidance on the
presentation of the audit report in the case of a modification. The audit report should include a paragraph which contains
specific reference to the fact that there is a material uncertainty that may cast significant doubt about the entity’s ability
to continue as a going concern. The paragraph should include a clear description of the uncertainties and would
normally be presented immediately before the opinion paragraph.

(c) The inheritance tax payable by Adam in respect of the gift from his aunt. (4 marks)

Additional marks will be awarded for the appropriateness of the format and presentation of the memorandum and

the effectiveness with which the information is communicated. (2 marks)

Note: you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 will continue to apply for the

foreseeable future.

(c) Inheritance tax payable by Adam
The gift by AS’s aunt was a potentially exempt transfer. No tax will be due if she lives until 1 June 2014 (seven years after
the date of the gift).
The maximum possible liability, on the assumption that there are no annual exemptions or nil band available, is £35,216
(£88,040 x 40%). This will only arise if AS’s aunt dies before 1 June 2010.
The maximum liability will be reduced by taper relief of 20% for every full year after 31 May 2010 for which AS’s aunt lives.
The liability will also be reduced if the chargeable transfers made by the aunt in the seven years prior to 1 June 2007 are
less than £285,000 or if the annual exemption for 2006/07 and/or 2007/08 is/are available.

2021ACCA/CAT考试试题及答案9辑 第9辑

(b) The management of Division C has identified the need to achieve cost savings in order to become more

competitive. They have decided that an analysis and investigation of quality costs into four sub-categories will

provide a focus for performance measurement and improvement.


Identify the FOUR sub-categories into which quality costs can be analysed and provide examples (which

must relate to Division C) of each of the four sub-categories of quality cost that can be investigated in order

that overall cost savings might be achieved and hence the performance improved. (8 marks)

(b) Quality costs may be monitored by measuring costs of non-conformance and costs of conformance.
Costs of non-conformance occur when the product fails to reach the design quality standards. Such costs may be subdivided
into internal failure costs and external failure costs.
Internal failure costs occur when the failure is detected before the transfer of the product to the customer.
External failure costs occur when the failure to reach the required standards is not detected until after the product has been
transferred to the customer.
Costs of conformance are those incurred in reducing or eliminating the costs of non-conformance. Such costs may be
subdivided into appraisal costs and prevention costs.
Appraisal costs are those associated with the evaluation of items such as purchased material and services in order to ensure
that they conform. to the agreed specification.
Prevention costs are those associated with the implementation of a quality improvement programme. Such costs are planned
in advance and their implementation should lead to continuous improvement.
Examples of quality costs relevant to Division C may include:
Internal failure costs: cost of materials scrapped due to poor receipt and storage procedures or losses of CC output due to poor
processing routines.
External failure costs: cost of quality problems with batch of CC not detected until it has reached Division B. This may require
free replacement of the batch and compensation for loss of output by Division B.
Appraisal costs: evaluation of purchased material and services in relation to the manufacture of CC to ensure that it conforms
to the agreed specification; e.g. inspection and testing before use.
Prevention costs: the cost of implementation of staff training and the costs of equipment testing to ensure that it conforms to
the specification standards required for the production of CC.
(Alternative relevant examples would be accepted)

(ii) Explain why the disclosure of voluntary information in annual reports can enhance the company’s

accountability to equity investors. (4 marks)

(ii) Accountability to equity investors
Voluntary disclosures are an effective way of redressing the information asymmetry that exists between management and
investors. In adding to mandatory content, voluntary disclosures give a fuller picture of the state of the company.
More information helps investors decide whether the company matches their risk, strategic and ethical criteria, and
Makes the annual report more forward looking (predictive) whereas the majority of the numerical content is backward
facing on what has been.
Helps transparency in communicating more fully thereby better meeting the agency accountability to investors,
particularly shareholders.
There is a considerable amount of qualitative information that cannot be conveyed using statutory numbers (such as
strategy, ethical content, social reporting, etc).
Voluntary disclosure gives a more rounded and more complete view of the company, its activities, strategies, purposes
and values.
Voluntary disclosure enables the company to address specific shareholder concerns as they arise (such as responding
to negative publicity).
[Tutorial note: other valid points will attract marks]

(b) Calculate the percentage of maximum capacity at which the zoo will break even during the year ending

30 November 2007. You should assume that 50% of the revenue from sales of ticket type ZC is attributable

to the zoo. (7 marks)


3 The Global Hotel Group (GHG) operates hotels in most of the developed countries throughout the world. The directors

of GHG are committed to a policy of achieving ‘growth’ in terms of geographical coverage and are now considering

building and operating another hotel in Tomorrowland. Tomorrowland is a developing country which is situated 3,000

kilometres from the country in which GHG’s nearest hotel is located.

The managing director of GHG recently attended a seminar on ‘the use of strategic and economic information in

planning organisational performance’.

He has called a board meeting to discuss the strategic and economic factors which should be considered before a

decision is made to build the hotel in Tomorrowland.


(a) Discuss the strategic and economic factors which should be considered before a decision is made to build

the hotel. (14 marks)

(a) Of vital importance is the need for reliable information on which to base the decision regarding the potential investment within
Tomorrowland, since the lack of such information will only serve to increase the risk profile of GHG.
The strategic factors that ought to be considered prior to a decision being made to build and operate a hotel in Tomorrowland
are as follows:
The competition
The key notion here is that of the position of GHG relative to its competitors who may have a presence or intend to have a
presence in Tomorrowland. The strategic management accounting system should be capable of coping with changes that can
and will inevitably occur in a dynamic business environment. Hence it is crucial that changes such as, the emergence of a
new competitor, are detected and reflected within strategic plans at the earliest opportunity.
The government
The attitude of the government of Tomorrowland towards foreign organisations requires careful consideration as inevitably the
government will be the country’s largest supplier, employer, customer and investor. The directors need to recognise that the
political environment of Tomorrowland could change dramatically with a change in the national government.
Planning and control of operations within Tomorrowland
Planning and control of operations within Tomorrowland will inevitably be more difficult as GHG might not possess sufficient
knowledge of the business environment within Tomorrowland. Indeed their nearest hotel is at least 3,000 kilometres away.
It is vital the GHG gain such knowledge prior to commencing operations within Tomorrowland in order to avoid undue risks.
The sociological–cultural constraints
While it is generally recognised that there is a growing acceptability of international brands this might not be the case with
regard to Tomorrowland. The attitude towards work, managers (especially foreign nationals) and capitalist organisations could
severely impact on the degree of success achieved within Tomorrowland. In this respect it is vital that consideration is given
to recognition of the relationships in economic life including demand, price, wages, training, and rates of labour turnover and
Resource utilisation
A primary consideration relates to whether or not to use local labour in the construction of the hotel. The perceived
‘remoteness’ of Tomorrowland might make it an unattractive proposition for current employees of GHG, thereby presenting the
directors of GHG with a significant problem.
Consideration needs to be given to the communication problems that arise between different countries and in this respect
Tomorrowland is probably no exception. Language barriers will inevitably exist and this needs to be addressed at the earliest
opportunity to minimise any risks to GHG.
The economic factors that ought to be considered prior to a decision being made to build and operate a hotel in Tomorrowland
are as follows:
Resource availability
The hotel should be designed having given due consideration to the prevailing climatic conditions within Tomorrowland which
might necessitate the use of specific types of building materials. It might well be the case that such building materials are not
available locally, or are in such scarce supply in which case local supply would prove to be uneconomic.
Another consideration relates to local labour being available and reliable in terms of its quality.
Currency stability/restrictions
The stability of the currency within Tomorrowland assumes critical significance because profit repatriation is problematic in
situations where those profits are made in an unstable currency or one that is likely to depreciate against the home currency,
thereby precipitating sizeable losses on exchange. Any currency restrictions need to be given careful consideration. For
example, it might be the case that hotel guests would be prohibited from paying accommodation bills in a foreign currency
which would be problematic if the local currency was weak.
All local and International legislation should be given careful consideration. It might be the case that local legislation via
various licences or legal requirements favour local hotels.
The potential demand within Tomorrowland will be linked to the local economy. It is a developing economy and this may
bode well for GHG. However, again the need for reliable information about the size of the market, the extent of competition,
likely future trends etc is of fundamental importance.
An important decision lies in the availability and associated costs of financing in Tomorrowland which might not have mature
enough capital markets due to its developmental state. Hence GHG might need to finance using alternative currencies.
Note: Other relevant comments would be acceptable.

3 The directors of Panel, a public limited company, are reviewing the procedures for the calculation of the deferred tax

provision for their company. They are quite surprised at the impact on the provision caused by changes in accounting

standards such as IFRS1 ‘First time adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards’ and IFRS2 ‘Share-based

Payment’. Panel is adopting International Financial Reporting Standards for the first time as at 31 October 2005 and

the directors are unsure how the deferred tax provision will be calculated in its financial statements ended on that

date including the opening provision at 1 November 2003.


(a) (i) Explain how changes in accounting standards are likely to have an impact on the provision for deferred

taxation under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’. (5 marks)


(a) (i) IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’ adopts a balance sheet approach to accounting for deferred taxation. The IAS adopts a full
provision approach to accounting for deferred taxation. It is assumed that the recovery of all assets and the settlement
of all liabilities have tax consequences and that these consequences can be estimated reliably and are unavoidable.
IFRS recognition criteria are generally different from those embodied in tax law, and thus ‘temporary’ differences will
arise which represent the difference between the carrying amount of an asset and liability and its basis for taxation
purposes (tax base). The principle is that a company will settle its liabilities and recover its assets over time and at that
point the tax consequences will crystallise.

Thus a change in an accounting standard will often affect the carrying value of an asset or liability which in turn will
affect the amount of the temporary difference between the carrying value and the tax base. This in turn will affect the
amount of the deferred taxation provision which is the tax rate multiplied by the amount of the temporary differences(assuming a net liability for deferred tax.)


(c) Discuss the factors that might influence whether the initial bid is likely to be accepted by the shareholders of Wragger plc.


(c) The type of payment might influence the success of the bid. Paxis is proposing a share for share exchange which offers a continuation in ownership of the entity, albeit as part of the successful bidder. However, relative share prices will change during the period of the bid, and the owner of shares in the potential victim company will not know the precise postacquisition value of the bid. An alternative might be cash payments which provides a known, precise sum, and might be favoured for this reason. However, in some countries payment in cash might lead to an immediate capital gains tax liability for the investor.

The effective price offered would of course be a major influence. Paxis would need to offer a premium over the existing share price, but the size of the premium that would be acceptable is unknown. Informal discussions with major shareholders of Wragger might assist in determining this (subject to such discussions being permitted by the regulatory authorities).

(b) Briefly explain the two types of informal communication known as the grapevine and rumour. (6 marks)

(b) The grapevine and rumour are the two main types of informal communication.
The grapevine is probably the best known type of informal communication. All organisations have a grapevine and it will thrive if there is lack of information and consequently employees will make assumptions about events. In addition, insecurity,gossip about issues and fellow employees, personal animosity between employees or managers or new information that has not yet reached the formal communication system, will all drive the grapevine.
Rumours are the other main informal means of communication and are often active if there is a lack of formal communication.A rumour is inevitably a communication not based on verified facts and may therefore be true or false. Rumours travel quickly(often quicker than both the formal system and the grapevine) and can influence those who hear them and cause confusion,especially if bad news is the basis of the rumour. Managers must ensure that the formal communication system is such that rumours can be stopped, especially since they can have a serious negative effect on employees.